The analysis made in the previous parts of this study has underlined the basic characteristics of the energy situation in developing countries, and the major constraints faced by developing countries in the transfer of technology and the strengthening of their technological capacity in the energy sector, and also showed how some of these countries had been trying to overcome these obstacles. These findings may be synthesized here with a view to drawing some general conclusions that have a bearing upon a discussion of policy issues and options for developing countries at the national, regional and international levels.
Energy is of universal importance for development. In fact, a close relationship is observed between income growth and energy consumption. Like income distribution, energy use is unevenly shared between developed and developing countries. World-wide energy consumption is heavily concentrated in the developed countries. These countries, with about 30 per cent of the world's total population, today consume more than 80 per cent of the world's total commercial energy. In sharp contrast, the other 70 per cent of the world's population, comprising the developing countries and the socialist countries of Asia, consume less than 20 per cent. On a per capita basis, commercial energy consumption in 1975 was 0.40 TCE in developing countries, compared with 6.09 TCE in the developed market economy countries, representing only one____________________