Recent increases in energy prices have drawn attention to the importance of developing an integrated approach to energy sector planning, in contrast to the prevailing practice of uncoordinated planning in different energy sub-sectors. Integrated national energy planning (INEP) requires a clear definition of national objectives, in relation to which links between the energy sector, and activities in each individual sub-sector, may be analysed. Policy tools for achieving national goals include physical controls, technical methods, education and propaganda, and pricing. Use of these tools must be coordinated. The INEP procedure, which leads to an energy master plan, consists of several steps: determining the socio-economic background, supply and demand analysis, energy balance, and policy formulation. Initially INEP may be carried out at a relatively simple level, and later as data and analytical capabilities improve more sophisticated computerized modelling techniques could be implemented. The institutional structure should be rationalized by setting up a central energy authority (CEA) or ministry of energy (MOE), with its principal focus on energy planning and policy formulation.
In recent years, decision makers in an increasing number of countries have realized that energy sector planning should be carried out on an integrated basis within the framework of a national energy master plan which determines energy policy,____________________