The Developmental Psychology of Planning: Why, How, and When Do We Plan?

By Sarah L. Friedman; Ellin Kofsky Scholnick | Go to book overview

3
The Development of Planning: It's About Time

Janette B. Benson University of Denver

Much of our daily planning presupposes certain expectations regarding the regularity of the temporal location and the rate of occurrence of events. . . . it would have been almost impossible to plan our lives were we to be totally in the dark as to what might take place when, how often, in what order, and how long.

-- Eviatar Zerubavel ( 1981, p. 13)

The formulation of plans is influenced by past experience, is executed in real present time, and is usually directed toward a future goal. As is true for all behavior, planning occurs in time, is ordered by time, and is experienced over time. Many of our plans are based on knowing when an event will take place (e.g., the plane leaves at 6:15), the likelihood of how often an event occurs (e.g., the 6:15 flight may be late but rarely leaves early), the order of events (e.g., one should be at the boarding gate before the flight leaves), and how long an event will take (e.g., the drive to the airport always takes twice as long as it should). Temporal knowledge includes an understanding of the sequence, duration, frequency, and location of events and actions. Although all components of temporal understanding are important, the following discussion focuses primarily on temporal sequence knowledge and its importance for the acquisition of skill in planning.

The concept of time is fundamental to planning behavior. We may plan because we think it will save time ( Kreitler & Kreitler, 1987a), or planning may be opportunistic when we realize that there may not be enough time to generate a plan in advance ( Rogoff, Gauvain, & Gardner, 1987). However, with few exceptions (e.g., Piaget ( 1969) analysis in The Child's Conception of Time), the relation between the development of temporal knowledge and the acquisition of skill in planning has enjoyed only passing reference. Why?

One reason is that insufficient attention has been paid to the origins and development of specific cognitive skills that are important for planning. A

-43-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Developmental Psychology of Planning: Why, How, and When Do We Plan?
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 390

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.