The Developmental Psychology of Planning: Why, How, and When Do We Plan?

By Sarah L. Friedman; Ellin Kofsky Scholnick | Go to book overview

differences may play an important role in determining what is seen as a potential stressor, determining the amount of attention that may be successfully allocated to negative information, how threatening information is processed, specific strategies undertaken to avoid the stressor or reduce its impact, and the process of monitoring and modifying one's proactive efforts. These differences may affect whether proactive coping is undertaken at all, and whether the specific cognitive and behavioral measures undertaken are successful in avoiding or offsetting potential stressors. Continued examination of the individual differences, motivational factors, cognitive skills, and problem features that help people to avoid stress, as well as to manage it when it occurs, offers intriguing potential for future study.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Portions of this chapter are based on a more complete explication of the proactive coping model developed in collaboration with Shelley Taylor ( Aspinwall & Taylor, in press). Lisa Aspinwall was supported in this work by the University of Maryland Department of Psychology.


REFERENCES

Andersen S. M. ( 1990). "The inevitability of future suffering: The role of depressive predictive certainty in depression". Social Cognition, 8, 203-228.

Andersen S. M., & Schwartz A. H. ( 1992). "Intolerance of ambiguity and depression: A cognitive vulnerability factor linked to hopelessness". Social Cognition, 10, 271-298.

Andersen S. M., Spielman L. A., & Bargh J. A. ( 1992). "Future-event schemas and certainty about the future: Automaticity in depressives' future-event predictions". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 711-723.

Ashford S. J., & Cummings L. L. ( 1983). "Feedback as an individual resource: Personal strategies of creating information". Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 32, 379-398.

Aspinwall L. G., & Brunhart S. M. ( 1996). "Distinguishing optimism from denial: Optimistic beliefs predict attention to health threats". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22. 993-1003.

Aspinwall L. G., & Brunhart S. M. ( 1997). Optimism and attention to proximal threats to health. Manuscript in preparation.

Aspinwall L. G., Hartman S. M., & Brunhart S. M. ( 1997). Optimism and responses to problems in close relationships. Manuscript in preparation.

Aspinwall L. G., & Taylor S. E. ( 1992). "Modeling cognitive adaptation: A longitudinal investigation of the impact of individual differences and coping on college adjustment and performance". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 989-1003.

Aspinwall L. G., & Taylor S. E. (in press). "Astitch in time: Self-regulation and proactive coping". Psychological Bulletin.

Bandura A. ( 1977). "Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change". Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.

Bargh J. A., Bond R. N., Lombardi W. J., & Tota M. E. ( 1986). "The additive nature of chronic and temporary sources of construct accessibility". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 869-878.

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