The Developmental Psychology of Planning: Why, How, and When Do We Plan?

By Sarah L. Friedman; Ellin Kofsky Scholnick | Go to book overview

14
The Interpersonal and Social Aspects of Planning

Jacqueline J. Goodnow Macquarie University, Australia

When psychologists study planning, they typically bring to the task two kinds of theoretical perspectives ( Friedman & Scholnick, 1991; Scholnick & Friedman, 1987). One of these emphasizes cognitive aspects: the individual's ability to construct a top-down sequence, perceive a difficulty, work out alternative steps, estimate relative costs and benefits, monitor progress, or work out repair strategies. The main goal is to account for differences in the nature and the effectiveness of plans. The sources of individual differences are seen as based on experience (this is regarded as providing a useful knowledge of the content area) and age (providing shifts in general ability).

The other perspective emphasizes motivations and beliefs, beliefs about fate or chance, about one's capacity to control events, about the value of planning or the "norms ... the rules or standards" ( Kreitler & Kreitler, 1987, pp. 1-13) that should govern the actions one takes. There is, again, an interest in accounting for the nature of plans, but the main goal is to account for the decision to plan and the extent to which persistent effort is put into making and executing a plan. The sources of individual differences are seen as based on individual experience (these are now experiences of demands for planning and of success in planning) and in the social or cultural value placed on planning.

The material to be discussed is closer to the second perspective than to the first. I shall depart from it, however, in two ways. The first departure consists of the proposal that both perspectives may benefit from analyzing situations that are not of the solitary-planner type. With this in mind, the first two sections of this chapter look toward situations that involve more than one person. These may be situations where the plans of two or more people are involved, raising questions about coordination and conflict. They may also be situations where the planning is done by one person, but other people are part of the plan. They are, for instance, the pieces to be

-339-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Developmental Psychology of Planning: Why, How, and When Do We Plan?
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 390

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.