The Third Career: Revisiting the Home vs. Work Choice in Middle Age

By Milica Z. Bookman | Go to book overview

maximum payment for services rendered. Their demands are more stringent and their willingness to compromise less obvious. While these women might seek flexibility in their positions, they will not turn away from the labor force if they do not receive it. They are the returning professionals, committed to a career (albeit with a hiatus) from the start.


Notes
1.
Katherine Wyse Goldman, If You Can Raise Kids, You Can Get a Good Job, New York: HarperCollins, 19%, p. 9.
2.
The literature on human capital is vast. See for example, Theodore Schultz, "Investment in Human Capital," American Economic Review 51, no. 1, March 1960 and Gary Becker, Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, With Special Reference to Education, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.
3.
Shirley Burggraf, The Feminine Economy and Economic Man, Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, Publishing Co, 1998, p. ix.
4.
These numbers are for the first child. It is clear from these data that parents, especially stay-at-home moms, are not small players in the economy. See Burggraf, p. 173.
5.
Furthermore, since shadow skills were acquired while another social and economic function was performed (i.e., rearing children and managing a household), they represent a positive by-product derived from staying-at-home (in economics jargon, a positive externality).
6.
In neoclassical economic theory, wage is determined by the marginal product. For most women in industrial societies, and especially those who are educated and advantaged, the marginal product of their labor is not zero, hence their wage is not zero but rather it is positive.
7.
Judith M. Bardwick, In Transition: How Feminism, Sexual Liberation, and the Search for Self-fulfillment Have Altered America, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979, p. 41.
8.
Juliet Schor, The Overworked American, New York: Basic Books, 1992, p. 164.
9.
Goldman, p. 49.
10.
Moreover, potential demand of their services or the goods they produce might come from the following social subgroups: those married without children, parents, single parents, female head of households, two-career parents, housewives, gay singles, couples, step-families, battered wives, battered lesbians, grandparents, etc.
11.
For example, if they are animal lovers, women can organize and provide the following: pet sitting service, groom pets from van, breed pets, photograph pets, counseling to grieving pet owners, cook gourmet foods for pets, dog walking service, etc.
12.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Book of the Year, 1997, Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., pp. 756, 801.
13.
As cited in Working Mother, June 1997, p. 10.
14.
The New York Times, March 8, 1996.
15.
Gary Becker, Kevin Murphy, and Robert Tamura, Human Capital, Fertility and Economic Growth, Chicago, Ill.: Economic Demography Group, Economics Research Center, NORC/University of Chicago, 1989.
16.
This is true not only of those who already have children, but also of those that plan to have children.
17.
Capitalist society values people according to their wage, which is determined by the market value of the good they produce. If the market value of homemaking is zero, then the wage is viewed by society as zero, and therefore the value of the person

-177-

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The Third Career: Revisiting the Home vs. Work Choice in Middle Age
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents ix
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xvii
  • Part I REALITIES xix
  • Chapter 1: The Profile of Middle-Aged Women with Choices 1
  • Chapter 2: Evolving Expectations of Women with Choices 17
  • Part II INCENTIVES 43
  • Chapter 3 the Transformation of Aspirations 45
  • Notes 60
  • Chapter 4: The Redefinition of Leisure 63
  • Chapter 5: The Reevaluation of Volunteer Work 79
  • Part III CONDITIONS 89
  • Chapter 7: The Accommodating Work Environment 101
  • Part IV CAPACITIES 119
  • Chapter 8: Advantages to Be Harnessed 121
  • Chapter 9: Obstacles to Be Overcome 137
  • Part V BENEFITS 155
  • Chapter 10 Social Benefits: the Economic Contribution of Women with Choices 157
  • Notes 177
  • Chapter 11: Individual Benefits 179
  • Appendix I Method 189
  • Notes 192
  • Appendix II Empirical Overview: Women with Choices in America and in the Sample 193
  • Notes 197
  • Appendix III The Survey 199
  • Selected Bibliography 211
  • Index 215
  • About the Author 219
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