Trade, Industrialization, and Integration in Twentieth-Century Central America

By Irma Tirado de Alonso | Go to book overview
50.
The petition requesting a review of worker rights in Panama was filed by the AFL-CIO in June 1991; the review was then extended into 1992. See AFL-CIO ( 1991b) for details; see also AFL-CIO ( 1991a).
51.
See, for example, Warr ( 1989), pp. 65-88.
52.
Over the period 1977-1990, the World Bank spent $87.5 million on six EPZ projects for site development and support; 40 percent of the funds went to two projects in the Dominican Republic and the balance of the spending was allocated to EPZ projects in Jamaica, Colombia, Kenya, and Thailand. See World Bank ( 1992a), p. 11.
53.
According to one source, the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) spent $289.7 million on programs in support of export and investment promotion (including EPZs) in Caribbean Basin countries over 1983-1992. About three-quarters of these AID funds ($218.9 million) reportedly went to Central American countries (two- thirds of which went to projects in El Salvador and Honduras), one-fifth went to Central Caribbean countries (the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Haiti), and the balance went to other Caribbean countries. See Kernaghan ( 1992), pp. 17-18.

The revelation of the use of U.S. AID funds for export and investment promotion in Central America and the Caribbean created quite a stir in the fall of 1992. See, for example, French ( 1992), p. 6; Shorrock ( 1992), pp. 1A, 3A; De Courcy ( 1992), p. A8; Noble ( 1992), p. F25; Sheinkman ( 1992), p. F13; and Hayes ( 1992), p. F11.

Legislation was enacted by the U.S. Congress and signed by the president in October 1992 to place certain restrictions on the activities of the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. Now prohibited were: (a) providing any financial incentives to a business enterprise currently located in the United States for the purpose of inducing such an enterprise to relocate outside the United States if such an incentive or inducement is likely to reduce employment in the U.S. enterprise; (b) providing assistance for the construction of EPZs in foreign countries unless the president certifies that such assistance is not likely to cause the loss of jobs in the United States; and (c) providing assistance for any project or activity that contributes to the violation of internationally recognized worker rights of workers in the recipient country, including any designated zone or area in that country. See the Export Enhancement Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-429) and the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1993 (P.L. 102-391).

54.
See Grunwald and Flamm ( 1985), pp. 226-27.
55.
See Interamerican Development Bank ( 1988), p. 93.
56.
See International Labour Organization and United Nations Center on Transnational Corporations ( 1988), p. 64.
57.
See International Labour Office ( 1992), p. 9.
58.
World Bank ( 1992b), Table 26, pp. 268-69.

REFERENCES

AFL-CIO. ( 1991a). "Statement by the AFL-CIO Executive Council on Worker Rights in Caribbean Export Processing Zones." Bal Harbour, FL, February 21.

_____. ( 1991b). "Worker Rights and the Generalized System of Preferences." Petition to the Office of the United States Trade Representative by the AFL-CIO, June.

-149-

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Trade, Industrialization, and Integration in Twentieth-Century Central America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface xi
  • PART I INTRODUCTION 1
  • 1: CENTRAL AMERICA: THE CHALLENGES OF TRADE, INDUSTRIALIZATION, and INTEGRATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 3
  • 2: A MACROECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF CENTRAL AMERICA 15
  • SUMMARY AND OVERVIEW 36
  • Note 36
  • PART II TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 39
  • 3: THE STRUCTURE OF TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 41
  • SUMMARY 58
  • Notes 59
  • References 59
  • 4: IDUSTRIALIZATION and TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 61
  • Notes 85
  • References 85
  • 5: MEXICO AS A POTENTIAL MARKET FOR CENTRAL AMERICAN and CARIBBEAN PRODUCTS 87
  • Notes 98
  • PART III INDUSTRIALIZATION AND INTEGRATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA 101
  • 6: THE INTENSITY OF CENTRAL AMERICAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 103
  • CONCLUSIONS 111
  • Notes 113
  • Notes 114
  • 7: ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS IN CENTRAL AMERICA 117
  • References 149
  • 8: PANAMA: ECONOMIC INTEGRATION ALTERNATIVES, IMPLICATIONS, and PERSPECTIVES 153
  • Notes 178
  • References 179
  • 9: THE CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET: AN ANALYSIS Of WELFARE EFFECTS FROM 1970 TO 1984 183
  • Conclusion 202
  • Notes 203
  • Notes 204
  • PART IV SPECIAL ISSUES 207
  • 10: ECONOMIC PROSPECTS FOR CENTRAL AMERICA IN THE DECADE OF THE 1990S 209
  • Notes 220
  • REFFERENCES 220
  • 11: A REVIEW OF ECONOMIC POLICIES and STRATEGIES FOR TRADE and INDUSTRIALIZATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA 223
  • CONCLUSION: WHERE TO FROM HERE? 232
  • References 235
  • 12: THE DILEMMA OF EXPORT RIVIVAL: NICARAGUAN AGRICULTURE AT A TURNING POINT 237
  • Notes 251
  • References 251
  • 13: CHALLENGES and PROSPECTS FOR CENTRAL AMERICA IN A GLOBAL TRADE CONTEXT 253
  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY 271
  • SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 277
  • Index 279
  • ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS 289
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