Trade, Industrialization, and Integration in Twentieth-Century Central America

By Irma Tirado de Alonso | Go to book overview
22.
It must be noted, though, that if the Panamanian infrastructure improves, Costa Rica may decide to import through Panamanian ports, thus expanding Panamanian service exports to the CACM. However, Panama does not need to join the CACM to achieve this result.
23.
It has been argued that if Panama joined the CACM, the stability of its currency would promote its widespread use in the CACM, thereby forcing the other CACM countries to improve the stability of their own currencies.
24.
One good example of this problem was the $600 million of short-term trade financing from Guatemala and El Salvador to Nicaragua that had to be converted into long term debt in the early 1980s, and which has still not been paid ( Loehr, 1991).
25.
For instance, Ballestero and Thoumi ( 1988) showed that the high degree of exchange rate instability in Argentina during the 1970s was transmitted to its neighbors, with whom it has had significant trade flows.
26.
A similar problem arose in LAC during the debt crisis of early 1982. The significant differences in the debt structure, and strategic roles of the LAC countries made it impossible for the region to negotiate as a group with its creditors. Many countries felt that they could get a better deal negotiating individually.
27.
Loehr ( 1991) arrived at the same conclusion.

REFERENCES

Asociación Panameña de Ejecutivos de Empresa (APEDE) and Federación de Entidades Privadas de Centroamérica y Panamá (FEDEPRICAP). ( 1991). El Transporte Internacional de Carga en la Integración de Panamá con Centroamérica. Panama City: APEDE and FEDEPRICAP, September. (Cited as APEDE and FEDEPRICAP.)

Bacha Edmar. ( 1970). "Venezuela y el Grupo Andino. El Problema y las Alternativas". El Trimestre Económico, 37, no. 145 (January-March): 153-69.

Ballestero Florencio, and Francisco E. Thoumi. ( 1988). "The Instability of Intra-Latin American and Caribbean Exports and Exchange Rates." In A. Jorge and J. Salazar- Carrillo (eds.), Foreign Investment, Debt and Economic Growth in Latin America. New York: Macmillan.

Center for Development Technology, Inc. ( 1985). "La Protección Efectiva en Algunas Industrias de la República de Panamá. " Panama City: Ministerio de Planificación y Política Económica.

Cline William. ( 1978). "Benefits and Costs of Economic Integration in Central America." In W. R. Cline and E. Delgado (eds.), Economic Integration in Central America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

_____. ( 1983). "Estrategia de las Negociaciones para la Integración Latinoamericana." Integración Latinoamericana. Buenos Aires: INTAL, no. 80 (June).

Cline William R., and Enrique Delgado. ( 1978). "Conclusion." In W. R. Cline and E. Delgado (eds.), Economic Integration in Central America. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

Consejo Monetario Centroamericano. ( 1989). Boletin Estadistics, Año 1989. Delgado Enrique . ( 1978). "Institutional Evolution of the Central American Common Market and the Principle of Balanced Development." In W. R. Cline and E. Delgado (eds.), Economic Integration in Central America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

-179-

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Trade, Industrialization, and Integration in Twentieth-Century Central America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface xi
  • PART I INTRODUCTION 1
  • 1: CENTRAL AMERICA: THE CHALLENGES OF TRADE, INDUSTRIALIZATION, and INTEGRATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 3
  • 2: A MACROECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF CENTRAL AMERICA 15
  • SUMMARY AND OVERVIEW 36
  • Note 36
  • PART II TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 39
  • 3: THE STRUCTURE OF TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 41
  • SUMMARY 58
  • Notes 59
  • References 59
  • 4: IDUSTRIALIZATION and TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 61
  • Notes 85
  • References 85
  • 5: MEXICO AS A POTENTIAL MARKET FOR CENTRAL AMERICAN and CARIBBEAN PRODUCTS 87
  • Notes 98
  • PART III INDUSTRIALIZATION AND INTEGRATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA 101
  • 6: THE INTENSITY OF CENTRAL AMERICAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 103
  • CONCLUSIONS 111
  • Notes 113
  • Notes 114
  • 7: ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS IN CENTRAL AMERICA 117
  • References 149
  • 8: PANAMA: ECONOMIC INTEGRATION ALTERNATIVES, IMPLICATIONS, and PERSPECTIVES 153
  • Notes 178
  • References 179
  • 9: THE CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET: AN ANALYSIS Of WELFARE EFFECTS FROM 1970 TO 1984 183
  • Conclusion 202
  • Notes 203
  • Notes 204
  • PART IV SPECIAL ISSUES 207
  • 10: ECONOMIC PROSPECTS FOR CENTRAL AMERICA IN THE DECADE OF THE 1990S 209
  • Notes 220
  • REFFERENCES 220
  • 11: A REVIEW OF ECONOMIC POLICIES and STRATEGIES FOR TRADE and INDUSTRIALIZATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA 223
  • CONCLUSION: WHERE TO FROM HERE? 232
  • References 235
  • 12: THE DILEMMA OF EXPORT RIVIVAL: NICARAGUAN AGRICULTURE AT A TURNING POINT 237
  • Notes 251
  • References 251
  • 13: CHALLENGES and PROSPECTS FOR CENTRAL AMERICA IN A GLOBAL TRADE CONTEXT 253
  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY 271
  • SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 277
  • Index 279
  • ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS 289
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