We began writing this book during the Bush administration and finished it during the Clinton administration. While some dimensions of national politics have changed with the new president, one thing remains constant: New Federalism, as devised under the Carter and Reagan administrations, will continue to be the driving force in federal-local relations. Cities will have to continue to find creative ways in which to meet expanded responsibilities and unforeseen challenges. They will have to rely on resources that are increasingly independent of the federal government. This is especially true with Congress and the president searching for ways to cut the deficit and reduce the national debt.
Employee training and staff development represent one strategy for addressing the current and future challenges facing municipalities more effectively. They permit local governments to build a work force that is better trained, highly motivated, and more sensitive to both the expected processes and results of public service. Ultimately, training represents an investment in transforming the government employee into the public servant. Given the many potential avenues for acquiring training and assistance--private consultants, nonprofit organizations, in-house training programs, and university-based public sector outreach units--investments in this critical area can be comparatively inex-