managers will need to be better able to adapt to change and to help employees adapt to change. Third, they will also need to be able to deal with interpersonal and intergroup conflict that may result from a more culturally diverse work force. Fourth, they will need to be better mentors and coaches, providing on-the-job training and motivating employees to develop their own potential. Chapters 4 and 5 will discuss some of these issues in greater depth.
This chapter has focused on general issues associated with training, focusing on the changing role of training in work organizations and the need for local government agencies to take a systems perspective in developing training programs. It is clear that as we move into the twenty-first century, training and retraining will play a central role in helping organizations adapt to the changes they are experiencing in their social, political, economic, and technological environments ( London and Wueste, 1992). In order for training to provide the greatest benefit to local governments, however, agencies will need to understand the strategic value of training and coordinate training strategy with agency and, more generally, local government strategies. Local governments will need to understand that training and development activities are more than employee benefits; they are investments in the agencies' and cities" own futures. City governments will need to integrate the planning of training and development programs with their centralized strategic planning activities, focusing on how the nature of work is likely to change over the next ten to twenty years, as well as on how the environment of local government will change over this period.
In addition, cities will need to develop policies regarding the role of training in their career management systems. For example, the Report of the Task Force on Education and Training to the National Commission on the Public Service ( 1989)--also known as the Volcker Commission--suggested that the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) help agencies design clear paths for advancement to the Senior Executive Service. It also suggested that OPM adopt a policy requiring regular training for all profes-