coordination; they may be the primary means of discourse and, on occasion,
The study of the relationship between IEP and IOs, even in this aggregate
form, can be pursued in a number of additional directions. One issue that
requires further exploration is the relationship between IEL participation and 10
prescription. Are there some identifiable combinations of countries or issue
areas wherein IOs are more or less likely to be used? If so, what are the
characteristics of these countries or issue areas?
A related issue is that of the apparent move toward specific policy focus
organizations. Are primarily environmental or primarily nonenviromnental
organizations preponderant? Does the issue area, region, or availability of IOs
play a role?
Finally, the relationship between high- and low-politics issue areas and the
prescription of IOs requires closer attention. The traditional functionalist
hypothesis that low politics areas may be more likely to be subject to
international organizational arrangements may require modification. IOs, once
in place and under certain conditions, may strengthen the probability of their
own use, even in high-politics issue areas.
We thank Georgia Carvalho and Mary Van Buren for their assistance.
A number of authors distinguish between institutions and organizations (Young,
1989b). We have no objections to the validity of such a distinction. We consider,
however, that the combination of international law and organizations is strong evidence
"Low politics" refers to issue areas that are not very salient and controversial; on
the other hand, "high politics" denotes issues that are salient and controversial.
Traditionally, international welfare issues have been considered low politics whereas
security issues have been considered high politics. Economic issues have been
considered somewhere in the middle ( Snidal, 1990:330).
Protocols usually specify the operational requirements of framework treaties and
may require the utilization of IOs not clarified in the treaty itself. Amendments, on the
other hand, are intended to bring up to date existing arrangements. In that sense,
protocols may be thought of as auxiliary treaties.
The instruments of formation of primarily nonenviromnental organizations who
were later assigned environmental responsibilities, such as the United Nations or UNESCO, were not counted. Those of primarily environmental organizations, such as
the International Union for the Conservation of Nature or the Rhine Commission, were
On occasion, existing IOs set up a program or service that they also administer
(i.e., the program or service reflects an extension of their functions). In other instances,
one or more IOs will set up a program with some operative independence. UNEP is a