Social Learning: Psychological and Biological Perspectives

By Thomas R. Zentall; Bennett G. Galef Jr. | Go to book overview

4
Cultural Transmission of Enemy Recognition by Birds

E. Curio Arbeitsgruppe für Verhaltensforschung Fakultät für Biologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, GFR.


INTRODUCTION

Birds, like other animals, are endowed with diverse structural and behavioral devices to escape from or fend off their predators. As a result of coevolution of prey and predator, behavioral devices for predator avoidance may become part of the prey species' behavioral repertoire. Predator avoidance, for instance, is often finely tuned to sympatric predators and is preprogrammed so that individual learning is unnecessary ( Curio, 1969, 1975; Giles, 1984; Seghers, 1970, 1973). Individual learning of predator avoidance may even be unfeasible because of its deadly cost ( Smith, 1975, 1977). When the threat from predators is relatively unpredictable, for example, as the result of invasion by a previously absent predator species (see Robertson & Norman, 1977, for a brood parasite; Diamond, 1985) or of a change in hunting behavior of a sympatric, hitherto innocuous species ( Steiniger, 1950), phenotypic plasticity can come to safeguard prey. One way to achieve learning to avoid a particular predator is by cultural transmission of avoidance of predator-associated stimuli, one of many forms of tradition in animals (see Mainardi, 1980). Formation of single species or multispecies flocks, an ingredient of predator harassment, would appear particularly conducive to this sort of learning.

The practical difficulty with experimental work on cultural transmission lies in the fact that any transmission procedure relies on the existence of at least

-75-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Social Learning: Psychological and Biological Perspectives
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 364

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.