Social Learning: Psychological and Biological Perspectives

By Thomas R. Zentall; Bennett G. Galef Jr. | Go to book overview

absence of observational learning, it is difficult to conceive how Mertesian mimicry might evolve.

Broadly, the present experiments suggest that a knowledge of stimulus effectiveness in laboratory studies of direct and vicarious avoidance learning will further understanding of aposematic signals used in model-mimic systems. Provided that laboratory experiments of visually mediated avoidance learning fit within a broader ecological context, one might predict that the stronger the avoidance response (e.g., the greater the resistance to extinction) in the laboratory, the more effective (and, perhaps, the more common) the stimulus complex in nature. This prediction is consistent with the observation that aposematic animals use both color and pattern cues to deter potential predators ( Cott, 1940). Strong avoidance acquisition after experience with a model prey (or after observation of prey sampling by a conspecific) could deter even brief sampling excursions by birds, thus decreasing the likelihood of encountering a mimic (and weakening the learned association). Strong acquisition might also permit the number of mimics to exceed the number of models without damage to the mimetic complex ( Brower, 1960).


SUMMARY

Learned avoidance and preference by birds for some foods is mediated by visual cues. Learning can occur either through direct experience or observation. For avoidance, aposematic colors such as red are more effective conditioned stimuli than cryptic colors such as green. For preference, both red and green appear to be equally effective. Ecologically, the differential effectiveness of color is predictable, because the aposematic colors are used frequently by animals to advertise unpalatability, whereas the cryptic colors serve this function rarely. An unanswered question is the importance of pattern cues as a variable influencing direct and observationally acquired preference and avoidance. The potential significance of striping is suggested by the observation that aposematic animals often are striped as well as brightly colored. The present experiments were designed to address this issue using redwinged blackbirds as subjects. Experiments 1 and 2 assessed whether complex stimuli (pattern and color cues) elicited greater resistance to extinction than simple stimuli (pattern or color cues) in avoidance learning. Experiment 3 investigated whether complex stimuli might facilitate resistance to extinction of color preference responding. Experiments 4 and 5 assessed whether complex stimuli would enhance learned avoidance of visual stimuli associated with merely unpalatable food. Both direct and vicariously acquired avoidance were more resistant to extinction when complex stimuli were employed. Resistance was enhanced regardless of whether the unconditioned stimulus was malaise or unpalatability. Conversely, resistance to extinction of color preferences was not affected by the use of complex stimuli. These results

-113-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Social Learning: Psychological and Biological Perspectives
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 364

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.