Dolphin Cognition and Behavior: A Comparative Approach

By Ronald J. Schusterman; Jeanette A. Thomas et al. | Go to book overview

3
Middle- and Long-Latency Auditory Event-Related Potentials in Dolphins

David L. Woods

University of California, Davis

Sam H. Ridgway

Donald A. Carder

Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego

Theodore H. Bullock

Scripps Institution of Oceanography


INTRODUCTION

Following the presentation of an auditory stimulus a series of electrical deflections, event-related potentials or ERPs, can be recorded from the scalp of humans and other animal species ( Corwin, Bullock, & Schweitzer, 1982). ERPs have been widely used for monitoring human sensory and cognitive processing ( Hillyard & Woods, 1979), and hold the promise of elucidating sensory and cognitive processes in other species ( Bullock, 1981). In the human, short- and middle-latency auditory ERPs (latencies 1.5-30.0 msec) are exogenous in that their amplitudes and latencies are determined primarily by the characteristics of the evoking stimulus and are little affected by manipulations in processing strategy. In contrast, long-latency components change with attention and have been related to a variety of higher cognitive functions ( Hillyard & Kutas, 1983). One of these components, the P3 or P300, is thought to be wholly endogenous, in that it reflects higher order optional cognitive operations which may be elicited by a stimulus ( Donchin, 1981).

Short-latency ERPs have revealed specialized mechanisms of acoustic processing in the cochlea, brainstem, and cortex of the bottlenose dolphin and other dolphin species ( Bullock et al., 1968; Bullock & Ridgway, 1972; Bullock & Gurevich, 1979; Ladygina & Supin, 1977; Ridgway et al., 1981). Recently,

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