COGNITION AND INTELLIGENCE OF DOLPHINS
Ronald J. Schusterman
How intelligent are dolphins? Compared with what other animals? What criteria should be used to judge intelligence? Are these intellectual standards set by humans or are they dictated by the life style and natural history of dolphins (i.e., by the nature of their feeding ecology, predator defense and social organization)? How do we study the intelligence and cognition of dolphins and what precisely do these terms mean? Should we emphasize the notion that intelligent behavior reflects various aspects of cognition (e.g., memory, expectancies, conceptualization, intentionality, etc.) or are we primarily concerned with longterm fitness maximizing behaviors? In what ways are the cognitive components, i.e., the short term aspects of intelligent behavior, related to those behaviors which, in the long haul, tend to maximize an individual's inclusive biological fitness? What cognitive characteristics do dolphins have in common with smaller brained creatures such as pigeons and rats, and what skills are unique to dolphins, i.e., what are their cognitive specializations?
The papers in this section deal with these and other knotty issues of animal intelligence in a most forthright and illuminating manner. Louis Herman, Karen Pryor, and Harry Jerison deal with proximal factors affecting the perceptual and cognitive worlds of dolphins. Herman approaches the subject empirically, using rigorous experimental tech-