The Practice of Constructivism in Science Education

By Kenneth Tobin | Go to book overview

8
Constructing Potential Learning Opportunities in Middle Grades Mathematics

Elizabeth Jakubowski

With a renewed emphasis on mathematics curriculum (e.g., National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) 1989) in schools causing educators to reexamine what is occurring in classrooms, the multitude of people involved with education are being challenged to consider questions such as, What is mathematics? What does it mean to do mathematics? and What are appropriate experiences for teaching and learning mathematics? In addition, the images individuals hold of mathematics and teaching and learning mathematics are being challenged by research efforts that continue to focus on mathematical learning and how students construct various mathematical concepts (e.g., Cobb et al. 1991; Hiebert and Behr 1988). In particular, research efforts in mathematics specific to middle grades are receiving increased attention ( Hiebert and Behr 1988). The purpose of this chapter is to provide an opportunity for the reader to reflect on what does occur in mathematical learning environments and what could occur if students are provided experiences that are conducive to promoting potential learning opportunities. Potential learning opportunities occur when a person attempts to make sense of an experience and to communicate this experience.

In describing mathematical activities, words such as experiences, activities, or tasks are used instead of classwork or homework. This is done to deemphasize the work notion that appears to accompany such words and to emphasize a learning atmosphere that should characterize classrooms ( Marshall 1988).

As students move into middle level classrooms, certain characteristics of the emerging adolescent have implications for teaching and learning middle grades mathematics. Since these students are at various stages in their mathematical development, the mathematics they are engaged in should continue to be conceptually oriented, with logical and/or abstract reasoning a goal of a mathematics program.

Physically, socially, emotionally, and intellectually, middle level children are going through tremendous upheavals in their lives. These changes

-135-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Practice of Constructivism in Science Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 344

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.