The Practice of Constructivism in Science Education

By Kenneth Tobin | Go to book overview

12
A Pragmatic View of Instructional Technology

Lloyd P. Rieber

Technology can be defined as the application of one or more knowledge bases for a useful purpose. Technology is represented in every practical object and activity around us. For example, the technology of "mobility" is illustrated in the doors we open, the stairs we climb, the elevators we ride, the cars we drive, the roads we drive on, and the maps we follow. Technologists consider what is known (i.e., basic science) and needed (i.e., real-life problems), and then they make decisions for action. Technology implies action and reflectivity as well as risk taking and inventiveness. Since knowledge bases and needs constantly change, revision, and renewal are central to any technology. Consider how the design of many sidewalks, parking lots, and doors over the last decade have provided (at long last) at least minimal access for people with physical disabilities. Of course, change for the better is the intent, though not necessarily the result. Most early proponents of the automobile foresaw personal freedom and mobility, but few anticipated pollution and traffic.

Instructional technology can be defined as the creative application of what is known about learning and instruction ( Romiszowski 1981; Knirk and Gustafson 1986). The term technology is best viewed in this context as a process tool for solving instructional problems. In this sense, instructional technology is a very practical and pragmatic field that is driven by clear goals. Interestingly, people outside of the field often equate instructional technology with one of many instructional media such as video or computers, or with models of instructional design such as those based on the instructional systems development (ISD) approach. However, these are mere instances of instructional technology that do not cover its breadth of scope and purpose any more than "addition" or "subtraction" defines mathematics or engineering. By definition, instructional technology is an evolving and interactive process. It is constantly reshaped by advances in the understanding of human learning and instructional practice.

Learning theory is arguably the most important foundation of instructional technology (Gagné and Glaser 1987). Advances in learning theory have had considerable influence on instructional technology. The roots of modern

-193-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Practice of Constructivism in Science Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 344

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.