Biological Determinants of Reinforcement - Vol. 7

By Michael L. Commons; Russell M. Church et al. | Go to book overview

4
Cholinergic Involvement in Hypothalamic and Midbrain Rewarding Brain Stimulation

John S. Yeomans Ora Kofman Virginia McFarlane University of Toronto

Self-stimulation can be obtained in dozens of brain regions, from the cerebral cortex ( Routtenberg, 1971) to the medulla ( Carter & Phillips, 1975), including all major brain divisions, such as hippocampus ( Campbell, Milgram, & Christoff , 1980), basal ganglia ( Phillips, Carter, & Fibiger, 1976), olfactory bulbs ( Phillips & Mogenson, 1969), and cerebellar cortex ( Ball, Micco, & Berntson, 1974). In each of these structures there are many more sites where self-stimulation cannot be obtained, however. Self-stimulation can be obtained in roughly 20% of rat brain tissue using 60-cycle sine-wave stimulation at currents up to 100 μA.

Although the structures associated with the limbic system are the most reliable sites for self-stimulation, there is no model that links these sites into one integrated system. Most theorists place as central to self-stimulation the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or one of its component tracts. Anatomically, this bundle links limbic structures in the forebrain with the brain stem. Also, the selfstimulation obtained in the MFB is exceedingly reliable and vigorous, and so has been studied more than any other system.

The vigor of MFB self-stimulation makes it different from self-stimulation in all other sites, and therefore peculiar. MFB stimulation produces active sniffing and exploration following stimulation, rapid acquisition of self-stimulation in the first training session, and bar-pressing rates above 1 per sec. At all sites along the length of the MFB, these characteristic responses are observed ( Yeomans, 1982).

This chapter discusses several recent findings about MFB self-stimulation. First, we review the properties of the substrate for MFB self-stimulation--that is, the axons whose activation results in the observed behavior. We discuss in

-87-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Biological Determinants of Reinforcement - Vol. 7
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 284

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.