(e.g., age) in studies of facial communication involving neurological populations; and (5) the possible relationship between expression and perception in communicating emotion.
In the final chapter, D. Labourel observes six aphasic patients from an ethological standpoint and studies the meaning of gestures and mimics in a communicative situation. A typology is proposed based on the different functions given by Jakobson ( 1960) in his communicative diagram. A classification of gestures and mimics during spoken exchange is established on three levels: reference, situation, and speech. The results show that the quantity and the type of gestures and mimics vary greatly from one patient to another and that this variation does not seem to be clearly correlated to the fluent or nonfluent characteristic of the type of aphasic observed. The main function of mimics and gestures also varies according to the situation and the aim of the communication. Apraxia, the question of laterality for gestures and brain dominance are discussed. Functional analysis of gestures and mimics indicates some ambiguities and the possibility of compensation for a verbal deficit by means of preserved mimogestuality is linked to several factors. In most cases, the gestural deficit is found not to be as serious as the verbal deficit.
The issue of gesture is on the threshold of remarkable developments and once again moving to playing an important role in the study of human communication. This obviously raises many questions about the nature of language itself and man's extraordinary capacity for expression. It is hoped that the chapters presented from such varied perspectives and diverse disciplines will contribute to the mapping out of potential directions of pluridisciplinary investigation in an area in which research has been largely dormant and too long neglected. If this is so, then the volume on the biological foundations of gesture will have served its purpose.
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