The Search for Quality Integrated Education: Policy and Research on Minority Students in School and College

By Meyer Weinberg | Go to book overview

6
Intradistrict Inequalities

How well a child is educated depends, in part, on the educational resources the child commands. 1 These include teachers, supplies, books, equipment, buildings--in fact, anything useful in the instruction of students. While some resources are "free" to the student (such as his family's encouragement) most others "cost" the community or that part of it which pays taxes.

How equitably are those resources distributed among the children who need them? To answer this question we must examine actual patterns of resource use, but such research is rare. The vast majority of research studies in educational finance are several removes from classroom realities. As long as this is true, the subject of resources will continue to be unexplored.

The 40 million or so public school students in the United States are supported by a total of some $80 billion in current expenditures. This stream of resources is fed by several tributaries. The federal government contributes about 8 percent, state governments about 44 percent, and localities 48 percent. Except for a few specific programs, federal authorities do not even attempt to determine whether most school children are equitably served. State governments have certain statutory obligations to check on local compliance with legal requirements, but much of this supervision is perfunctory. Inside the individual school districts almost nothing is known of how equitably resources are distributed among schools.

For the past decade or so, to many observers or scholars, the topic of educational finance has come to mean reform of the property tax system. Proponents of this reform claimed its goal was a more just distribution of resources among school districts. Since they express no interest in equality of resources among schools, they continue to change the taxing system rather than the resources of individual schools or classrooms.

Unless tax reformers concern themselves with the individual school, they lack any means of discerning the educational impact of tax reforms. As a result, it will be merely tax rates that are reformed. A more uniform system of tax rates among school districts in a state is laudable, but it has no neces-

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The Search for Quality Integrated Education: Policy and Research on Minority Students in School and College
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction xi
  • 1 - The Historical Background 1
  • Notes 20
  • 2 - The Legal Framework 23
  • Notes 50
  • 3 - Race And. Intelligence in America 54
  • Notes 85
  • 4 - Changing Discriminatory Educational Processes 94
  • Notes 109
  • 5 - Education in Black Schools 112
  • 6 - Intradistrict Inequalities 127
  • Notes 143
  • 7 - Desegregation and Academic Achievement 146
  • Notes 168
  • 8 - Moving from Desegregation to Integration 172
  • Notes 189
  • 9 - Mexican Americans and American Indians 194
  • Notes 226
  • 10 - The Minority Community and Its Schools 231
  • 11 - Minorities in Higher Education - I 270
  • Notes 290
  • 12 - Minorities in Higher Education--Ii 294
  • 13 - Conclusions 324
  • Bibliographical Essay 333
  • Index 343
  • About the Author 355
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