4
TRENDS IN BRAZILIAN NATIONAL DEPENDENCY SINCE 1964

Robert A. Packenham

Is Brazilian dependence on the international environment greater than, less than, or the same as it was in 1964, when the current regime came to power? Observers of Brazilian affairs answer the question in varied ways. The prevailing view in Brazil, the United States, and Europe is that Brazil's dependence has increased. Indeed, Brazil since 1964 is seen as the prototype case of diluting or abandoning the quest for national autonomy in order to realize the (dubious) benefits of capitalist industrialization and development. Thus Ronald Chilcote characterizes Brazil's post-1964 relationship to the United States as a "subservient, dependent" one.1 According to Marcio Moreira Alves the present Brazilian economy has become "totally dependent on foreign powers and their investments."2Helio Jaguaribe sees Brazilian dependency as "rising, and becoming increasingly irreversible."3 He warns that unless these tendencies are corrected within certain

____________________
I am grateful to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, the Center for Research in International Studies of Stanford University, and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace for the grants for research and travel which made this study possible. I wish also to thank the director, Dr. Cleantho de Paiva Leite, and the staff of the Instituto Brasileiro de Relações Internacionais (IBRI) in Rio de Janeiro for office space and hospitality from August to December 1974. For especially valuable critical comments on an earlier draft of this paper I thank Fernando Henrique Cardoso, José Murilo de Carvalho, David Dye, Abraham Lowenthal, Thomas Skidmore, Carlos Eduardo Souza e Silva, and John Wirth. Responsibility for the final product is, of course, mine alone.
1
Ronald L. Chilcote, book review of Frank D. McCann, The Brazilian-American Alliance, 1937-1945 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1973), in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, no. 415 ( September 1974), p. 232.
2
Marcio Moreira Alves, A Grain of Mustard Seed: The Awakening of the Brazilian Revolution (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Anchor, 1973), p. 162.
3
Helio Jaguaribe, Brasil: Crise e Alternativas ( Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1974), p. 72.

-89-

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Brazil in the Seventies
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction 1
  • 1: BRAZIL'S CHANGING ROLE IN THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM: IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. POLICY 9
  • 2: THE BRAZILIAN GROWTH and DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCE: 1964-1975 41
  • Introduction 41
  • Conclusion 86
  • 4: TRENDS IN BRAZILIAN NATIONAL DEPENDENCY SINCE 1964 89
  • Summary and Conclusions 110
  • CONTRIBUTORS 117
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