the actual history of the United States and to make more effective use of it. A Marxian need not follow Mr. Smith in ignoring the history of Carthage, Athens, and Venice as well as of modern England, or in asserting that "the traditions of a mercantile community are incompatible with empire" (p. 266). But the outstanding fact remains that the diverse attitudes of literary critics do not correspond to successive forms of economic organization; and the case is obviously even weaker if we consider the divisions between rival contemporaneous schools. For no economic differences in origin or status separate the Neo-humanists from such writers as Spingarn, Mencken, and their followers. It is not good scientific method to reduce a wide range of very complicated and highly individualized phenomena to too simple a pattern.
IMPRESSIONISM AND AUTHORITY IN LITERARY CRITICISM
THE CRAVING for order and stability in human affairs naturally expresses itself in the field of criticism by emphasis on rules, standards, and authority. Poets or creative spirits in literature may be men of the feverish or unstable temperament popularly known as the "artistic"; but critics have hitherto been for the most part pedagogues, men who preferred to occupy positions where they could live sheltered lives. Hence while scholars may discover in the literary criticism of the past an occasional antinomian or anarchic note, the presence of a whole school boldly____________________