truths, comes only with long cultivation of science. Just before the war there were several indications of a developing Russian interest in philosophy, notably the work of Loskii.
Similar considerations will enable us to see in proper perspective the violence of Russian literature as typified by Dostoievsky, Gorky, and Andreyev. Russian literature has been for the most part the expression of a small class oppressed by the rigors of nature as well as by the hopelessness of the social task of Russian life. Its agonized consciousness leaves little room for the Hellenic serenity which can see life steadily and see it whole. Yet does not the art of Turgeniev give us the same type of elevation and mastery as does Sophocles? It is now not typically Russian--but one can with equal truth say that Shakespeare is European rather than typically English.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF NAPOLEON
AGAINST THE PROTESTS of the Socialists, France is celebrating the centenary of the death of Napoleon. In this, as in many other cases, all the arguments of liberal rationalism seem clearly on one side, but the deeper instinctive admirations of men are to the contrary. It seems almost impossible to resist the obvious reflection that this is not a propitious time for France to remind the world that the most ruthless imperialist of modern times, the one to whom we are so largely indebted for the terrible burden of standing armies, was not of German origin. Moreover, it cannot be denied that the progress of historical studies has____________________