THE COURT AT WORK -- ORGANIZATION -- METHODS
Under the Judiciary Act of 1789,1 provision was made for a Supreme Court consisting of a Chief Justice and five Associate Justices. The number of Associate Justices was increased to six in the year 1807, to eight in 1837 and to nine in 1863. Am act of 18662 would in time have reduced the Associate Justices to six, but unfilled vacancies had cut the number to seven when the Act of 18693 reconstituted the Court with a Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices, or nine in all, as it remains at the present time.
Ten Chief Justices and sixty-five Associate Justices have served in the Court, including those now on the bench. Washington made four appointments to the office of Chief Justice; John Jay, who served from 1789 to 1795 and then resigned to accept appointment as special Ambassador to England; John Rutledge who was appointed in 1795 during a recess of the Senate and was rejected when his name was sent in; William Cushing who was appointed, confirmed and declined; Oliver Ellsworth who served from 1796 to 1800 and resigned to become Ambass-____________________