New Immigrant Literatures in the United States: A Sourcebook to Our Multicultural Literary Heritage

By Alpana Sharma Knippling | Go to book overview

and strangers to him, immensely multiplying the distance that exists between any parent and child, any past (which is "a foreign country") and the beckoning present.

With Najarian's second novel and Edgarian's book, Akillian's poems stand firmly in the Armenian-American present, which is a moment of settling accounts with the past, of putting down a burden. Whether those who do so will turn, in the twenty-first century, to a redefinition and diasporization of Armenian Americanness in some interaction with the homeland Republic of Armenia is unclear. It is a plausible hypothesis. But it is also possible that the power and glamour of white ethnicity have already peaked and that white ethnics will henceforth affect and display only whatever items of their culture are deemed fashionable for middle-class consumers of lifestyles. Perhaps the title "Consuming Ethnicity" should be copyrighted for the next edition of a reference text like this volume: by then, it may be clear whether ethnicity will flourish as it consumes the signs and texts of its past or whether it will prove itself to be a self-consuming entity as ethnics make their peace with the past and fail to produce a diasporan future.


NOTES
1.
"Primary" because the diasporan population came to the site directly from the homeland; "secondary" diasporas are formed when such a population migrates again, as the Jewish diaspora of Spain was forced to migrate in 1492 to the Ottoman Empire, or as the Indians of Uganda were forced by Idi Amin to depart for the U.K. and the United States. "Intrastate" because, having left a homeland ruled by an alien empire, the diasporans settled elsewhere in the territories of that empire. For details and implications, see Tololyan, "Exile Governments."
2.
"Ethnodiasporan" is an awkward but necessary term, because the Armenian- American community contains both ethnics and diasporans. Italian Americans offer an excellent model of ethnicity: they take pride in their names, food, music, culture, and symbolic affiliations with the homeland; they rally against defamation; they maintain strong kinship groups and compatriotic associations. But unlike the Armenian diaspora, for example, they are not organized transnationally, to maintain, as a collectivity, active political, cultural, or economic interaction with the homeland or with other Italian communities in, say, Canada or Australia. Nor do they seek to lobby the U.S. government with a specifically Italian/American agenda.
3.
Despite its promising title, Lorne Shirinian The Republic of Armenia and the Rethinking of the North-American Diaspora in Literature does not adequately address this issue.
4.
The importance of print culture to the emergence of homeland nationalisms is well known; cf. Anderson Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism ( London: Verso, 1983). But their role in the creation of diasporan national movements such as the Armenian and the Jewish (Zionist) is not equally well understood.
5.
The scholarly Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies has been published intermittently since 1984, and The Journal of Armenian Studies since 1975.

-39-

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New Immigrant Literatures in the United States: A Sourcebook to Our Multicultural Literary Heritage
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • Works Cited xix
  • I - Asian-American Literatures 1
  • 1 - Arab-American Literature 3
  • Conclusion 15
  • Notes 15
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 16
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 17
  • 2 - Armenian-American Literature Khachig Tololyan 19
  • Conclusion 37
  • Notes 39
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 40
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 41
  • 3 - Chinese-American Literature 43
  • Introduction 43
  • Notes 62
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 62
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 63
  • 4 - Filipino American Literature Nerissa Balce-Cortes and Jean Vengua Gier 67
  • Conclusion 84
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 86
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 87
  • 5 - Indian-American Literature 91
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 105
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 107
  • 6 - Iranian-American Literature Nasrin Rahimieh 109
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 122
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 123
  • 7 - Japanese-American Literature Benzi Zhang 125
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 140
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 141
  • 8 - Korean-American Literature 143
  • Conclusion 151
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 152
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 154
  • 9 - Pakistani-American Literature Sunil Sharma 159
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 164
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 167
  • II - Caribbean-American Literatures 169
  • 10 - Anglophone Caribbean-American Literature 171
  • 11 - Cuban-American Literature 187
  • Conclusion 203
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 204
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 205
  • 12 - Dominican-American Literature 207
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 216
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 218
  • 13 - Puerto Rican-American Literature Carrie Tirado Bramen 221
  • Conclusion 234
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 234
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 237
  • III - European-American Literatures 241
  • 14 - Finnish-American Literature 243
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 251
  • 15 - Greek-American Literature 253
  • Conclusion 259
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 259
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 261
  • 16 - Irish-American Literature 265
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 276
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 279
  • 17 - Italian/American Literature 281
  • Conclusion 287
  • Notes 290
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 291
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 292
  • 18 - Jewish-American Literature 295
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 305
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 307
  • 19 - Sephardic Jewish-American Literature 309
  • Introduction 309
  • Conclusion 313
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 314
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 316
  • 20 - Polish-American Literature 319
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 326
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 327
  • 21 - Slovak-American and Czech-American Literature 329
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 337
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 338
  • IV Mexican-American Literatures 339
  • 22 - Mexican-American Literature Ada Savin 341
  • Conclusion 357
  • Notes 359
  • Selected Primary Bibliography 360
  • Selected Secondary Bibliography 362
  • Selected Bibliography 367
  • Index 371
  • About the Contributors 383
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