Design and Analysis of Single-Case Research

By Ronald D. Franklin; David B. Allison et al. | Go to book overview

6
Statistical Alternatives for Single-Case Designs

Bernard S. Gorman
Hofstra University

David B. Allison
Obesity Research Center, St. Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital Center Columbia University Collegeof Physicians and Surgeons


AN OVERVIEW OF SINGLE-CASE DESIGNS

This chapter discusses statistical approaches for analyzing single-case research designs.1 These designs and their corresponding statistical analyses span a continuum that ranges from experimental designs to correlational designs. Figures 6.1a and 6.1b display a typology of analyses. By experimental designs we mean designs in which researchers manipulate one or more independent variables and in which potentially confounding variables are controlled by randomly assigning treatment conditions to subjects. In quasi-experimental designs, the independent variables are manipulated by natural or historical events. Consequently, there is little direct control of unwanted variation, and treatments are not assigned at random. As one departs from the strict requirements of experimental designs, it becomes more difficult to draw precise conclusions about causal relations between manipulations and outcomes.

We can also draw a distinction within the group of experimental designs between those designs that we call "time-series experimental designs" and those that we call "nontime-series experimental designs." Time-series experimental designs measure behavior over continuous

____________________
1
We wish to thank our colleagues Mark Beasley, Myles Faith, Phillip Good, Jack McCardle, Richard Ittenbach, and David Rindskopf for their astute comments and suggestions as this manuscript was developing.

-159-

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Design and Analysis of Single-Case Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • References x
  • Contributors xiii
  • List of Equations xix
  • 1: Introduction 1
  • Introduction 1
  • References 10
  • 2: Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Single-Case Research 13
  • References 39
  • 3: Measurement of Dependent Variables 41
  • References 84
  • APPENDIX: CONSTRUCTING CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR ICCS (FROM SHROUT & FLEISS, 1979) 90
  • 4: Treatment Integrity in Single-Subject Research 93
  • 5: Graphical Display and Visual Analysis1 119
  • Introduction 119
  • References 154
  • 6: Statistical Alternatives for Single-Case Designs 159
  • References 208
  • 7: Serial Dependency in Single-Case Time Series 215
  • Introduction 215
  • References 242
  • 8: Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research 245
  • Introduction 245
  • SUMMARY 273
  • References 273
  • 9: The Potentially Confounding Effects of Cyclicity: Identification, Prevention, and Control 279
  • References 328
  • Appendix 334
  • 10: Power, Sample Size Estimation, and Early Stopping Rules 335
  • Introduction 335
  • SUMMARY 367
  • References 368
  • Author Index 373
  • Subject Index 383
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