Visions of the Fantastic: Selected Essays from the Fifteenth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts

By Allienne R. Becker | Go to book overview

a chapel in the novel, a cemetery in the ballad. In the novel we read: ". . . before my very eyes, and almost in the drawing of a breath, the whole body crumbled into dust and passed from our sight" (408). In stanza thirty of "Lenore," we find that instantly the horseman's doublet disintegrates while his head becomes a naked skull and his body turns into a skeleton.

Stoker knew very well what he was doing in making both direct and indirect use of Bürger "Lenore'" in Dracula. In the same way that his research notes reveal careful preparation and use of a wealth of supporting material, so does his incorporation of "Lenore" likewise appear to be the product of thought and plan and not a random or trivial element included only casually.


NOTES
1.
To be precise, it is not an absolutely exact quotation, for the word "denn" does not appear in Bürger's repeated use of the line. However, the line is correct in the story "Dracula's Guest" mentioned subsequently. Stoker's quotes frequently display lapses of this kind.
2.
I am grateful to Professor Allienne Becker for drawing this story to my attention.
3.
It is Stoker who gives us the date of May 4-5. Traditionally, St. George's Day is April 23, and is so mentioned by him elsewhere ( Florescu and McNally226).

WORKS CITED

Boerner Peter. "Bürger's Ballad 'Lenore' in Germany, France and England." Sensus Communis: Contemporary Trends in Comparative Literature, ed. Janos Riezs, Peter Boerner , and Bernhard Scholz. Festschrift für Henry Remak. Tübingen: Narr, 1986.

Brentano Clemens. Sämtliche Werke und Briefe (Frankfurter Brentano-Ausgabe, or FBA) vols. 7 and 9/2. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1976, 1977.

Bürger Gottfried August. Werke. Ed. Lore Kaim-Klook and Siegfried Streller. Weimar: Volksverlag, 1962.

-----. "Lenore." German Poetry from 1750 to 1900. Ed. Robert M. Browning. The German Library, vol. 39. New York: Continuum, 1984: 13-29.

Florescu Radu R. and Raymond T. McNally. Dracula, Prince of Many Faces: His Life and His Times. Boston/ Toronto/ London: Little, Brown and Company, 1989.

Fowler David C. A Literary History of the Popular Ballad. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press, 1968.

Garland Henry and Mary Garland. The Oxford Companion to German Literature. 2nd edition Ed. Mary Garland. Oxford/ New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986.

Irving Washington. "The Spectre Bridegroom." The Works of Washington Irving. Rev. edition. Boston: Desmond, n.d. [ca. 1891]; 7: 117-130.

Leach MacEdward, ed. The Book of Ballads. New York: George Macy / The Heritage Press, 1967.

Nicholson Andrew. "'Kubla Khan': The Influence of Bürger's 'Lenore.'" English Studies: A Journal of English Language and Literature 64 ( 1983): 291-295.

Poe Edgar Allan. The Viking Portable Library. Selected and ed. with an introduction and notes by Philip Van Doren Stern. New York: Viking Press, 1945.

Primeau John K. "The Influence of Gottfried August Bürger on the Lyrical Ballads ofWilliam Wordsworth: The Supernatural vs. The Natural."

-137-

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