Implementing Organizations and Structures
The INF Treaty imposed far greater obligations on the U.S. Government than any previous arms control agreement. Implementing these new responsibilities fell primarily to the Department of Defense (DoD), with the State Department Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and FBI playing significant roles. Two entirely new bodies established within the U.S. government carried out INF Treaty provisions. The On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) was created as an independent DoD agency specifically to implement the Treaty's on-site inspection and escort obligations. The Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers (NRRCs), originally established in the State Department to reduce the possibility of accidental nuclear conflict, were made the principal channel for receiving and transmitting INF notifications.
Since the INF Treaty involved the elimination of military missile systems, the DoD was charged with its implementation. DoD components began planning in summer 1987 to carry out INF Treaty provisions. U.S. implementation responsibilities were identified, DoD agencies familiarized with their projected obligations and systematic planning initiated. Initial implementation efforts, however, were complicated by the fact that many of the most difficult provisions to implement, particularly in the verification area, were agreed upon only in the final weeks before the INF Treaty was signed. In addition, although the U.S. assumed substantial new