has with the WEU to remain unaltered, and were an American SACEUR to
remain an immutable principle, it would make hollow the concept of a European
Eventually, some form of power sharing in the command of military formations in Europe should be worked out between the United States and the European Union. As the American troop draw-down nears completion, both sides
must eventually define what is to be their relationship. This definition cannot
logically take the form of a deeper, more integrated defense commitment: the
ties between the United States and Europe have been and will inexorably continue to loosen, given the disappearance of the Soviet threat. Whatever the outcome, the emergence of a European defense identity is likely to require, over
time, transfers of sovereignty and powers on both sides of the Atlantic.
Jean Doise and
Maurice Vaïsse, Diplomatie et outil militaire ( Paris: Imprimerie
Nationale, 1987), 623.
From a seminar conducted by Gates at the Olin Institute, Harvard University, May
"French Dilemmas and Strategies in the New Europe," in After the Cold War:
International Institutions and State Strategies in Europe, 1989-1991, ed.
Joseph Nye, Robert Keohane, and
Stanley Hoffmann ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), 130.
Interview with Jacques Andréani, French Ambassador to the United States, June
French Embassy Press Service, Washington, D.C., text of speech of President Mitterrand, 6.
Alain Rollat, "Jeu de patience à l'Elysée," Le Monde, October 19, 1991, 9.
Frédéric Bozo, La France et l'OTAN ( Paris: Masson, 1991), 195.
Catherine Guicherd, "A European Defense Identity: Challenge and Opportunity
for NATO," Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, June 12, 1991, summary page. The European Political Union was the linear successor to (a) the aborted plan
to develop a European Political Community alongside the European Defense Community
in the 1950s; then (b) the various subsequent plans to develop greater political cohesion,
the most prominent of which was the failed Fouchet Plan of the 1960s; and finally (c)
the loose, consensus-based mechanism of European Political Cooperation developed in
the 1970s (pp. 76-77).
The two conferences were eventually held in December 1990.
Guicherd, "European Defense Identity,"7.
American Embassy telegram no. 4066 to State, July 6, 1990, 2-3.
Le Monde, July 8-9, 1990, 5.
Doise and Vaïsse, Diplomatie et outil militaire, 649.
Less than two weeks after the London Summit, and the image it projected of a
more benign and more politically oriented Atlantic alliance, Mikhail Gorbachev gave up