the other systems that operate in the broader environment in which schools themselves exist, what we can call the macroenvironment. Schools cannot change through programs or partnerships alone. They can change only if they take charge of themselves and begin to rethink their systems, their internal operating procedures, and the ways in which they relate to those constituencies that they once considered "outside."
Schools thus themselves have to assume responsibility for these reforms. While outsiders can attempt to persuade educators to change, while incentives and advice can be offered, and while criticism for lack of change can rage, the only ones capable of effecting real change are those inside the school. Change has to happen not only at the classroom level, but also in the ways in which schools themselves are organized.
Further, change has to happen in the ways in which schools relate to outside constituencies. The boundaries that have been built up so high around schools need to be broken down and communication needs to be established so that mutual responsibilities can be articulated and action plans created. As will be seen in the next chapters, the problems of schools are far from simple. Simple solutions won't work. For anything at all to work, society itself needs to accept responsibility for the welfare and well-being of children, for discipline and guidance, and for creating policies that provide a reasonable start toward gaining an education.