professionals but also to psychologists who must determine the usefulness of selection tests. Some psychologists (e.g., Murphy, 1987) have suggested that some psychological tests have limited utility when base rates are low; this argument has been applied to the utility of preemployment integrity tests ( Manhardt , 1989; Murphy, 1989). However, this argument is moot if the base rate is substantial and reflects the selection ratio ( Ash, 1989; Murphy, 1989). The surveys described here found substantial employee deviance base rates for two industries. The finding of substantial base rates of employee theft and counterproductivity suggests that valid and reliable integrity tests that use norm-referenced cutoff scores (cf. Jones, 1989) are useful for the purpose of selecting applicants less likely to engage in dishonest activities on the job. In addition, the establishment of employee deviance base rates and the identification of specific behaviors allow for the application of practical solutions to the costly problems of employee deviance.
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