due to placing too much emphasis on studies plagued by shortcomings that compromise the studies' findings. These include the use of inappropriate and constricted samples, problems in study design, and limitations of the clinical model of prediction. When these problems are addressed, standardized instruments and an actuarial model have been found to be related significantly to violence in both clinical and work settings.
For employers, job-relevant behaviors such as aggressive dealings with customers should be considered in any measure of violence. The research has shown that persons will reveal violent tendencies on psychological assessment instruments and that many job-relevant violent acts may go undetected using conventional methods. Thus, the ability to predict on-the-job violence offers hope to employers in controlling the many costs of counterproductivity.
Behrens G. M. ( 1989). Predicting violence: A reply to Inwald. Unpublished research note. Park Ridge, IL: London House.
Bohn M. J., Jr. ( 1978). Classification of offenders in an institution for young adults. Paper presented at the 19th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Munich, July 31.
Cattel R. B., Eber H. W., & Tatsuoka M. M. ( 1970). Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Abilities Testing.
Cattell H. B. ( 1989). The 16PF: Personality in depth. Champaign, IL: IPAT.
Dahlstrom W. G., Welsh G. S., & Dahlstrom L. E. ( 1972). An MMPI handbook: Volume I: Clinical interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Frost A. G., & Joy D. S. ( 1987). The use of the Personnel Selection Inventory and the Emo Questionnaire in the selection of child care workers. Technical Report 52. Park Ridge, IL: London House.
Gough H. G. ( 1957). California Psychological Inventory Manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Gough H. G. ( 1969). Manual for the California Psychological Inventory. Rev. ed. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Gough H. G. ( 1975). Manual for the California Psychological Inventory. Rev. ed. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Gough H. G., Wenk E. A., & Rozynko V. V. ( 1965). "Parole outcome as predicted from the CPI, the MMPI, and a base expectancy table". Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70, 432-441.