Finally, test users should recognize the inherent limitations of predicting human behavior. Classification errors, in which a few good applicants are rejected and a few bad applicants are accepted, are an unfortunate but inevitable part of all personnel decision-making systems. Test users should avoid evaluating a selection instrument against an absolute standard of perfection or perfect accuracy. Instead, they should compare the cost, potential error rate, and expected return on investment of the test against the cost, potential error rate, and expected return on investment of alternative screening approaches or against the use of no formal selection approaches.
The Model Guidelines are designed to benefit test publishers, user companies, and job applicants. They should be used in conjunction with other legal and professional guidelines on the proper use of personnel selection tests. A personnel selection program designed to control employee theft should ideally be used in conjunction with other loss control programs, such as training sessions to teach current employees how to exhibit the highest level of integrity while coping with various workplace pressures (e.g., peer pressure to steal) and temptations (e.g., unsupervised access to cash and valuable merchandise). American companies need to control employee theft and related counterproductivity and should benefit from using the Model Guidelines to help them select and use preemployment integrity tests.
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education ( 1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Association of Personnel Test Publishers (APTP) ( 1990). Model guidelines for preemployment integrity testing programs. Washington, DC: APTP.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Civil Service Commission, Department of Labor, & Department of Justice ( 1978). "Adoption of four agencies of uniform guidelines on professional selection procedures." Federal Register, 3(166), 38290- 38313.
Jones J. W., & Orban J. A. ( 1990). Personnel testing in service stations and convenience stores. Paper presented at the 1990 Petroleum Marketing Education Foundation Conference, Vail, Colorado.
O'Bannon R. M., Goldinger L. A., & Appleby G. S. ( 1989). Honesty and integrity (testing: A practical guide. Atlanta: Applied Information Resources.