Systematic Analysis in Dispute Resolution

By Stuart S. Nagel; Miriam K. Mills | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 9
The Use of Simulation in International Negotiations

GILBERT R. WINHAM

Since 1973, the author has employed simulation exercises for the purpose of training government officers in negotiation techniques. These exercises have been held in Ottawa, Washington, D.C., Geneva (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), and in various locations in developing countries. The exercises have generally lasted two to three days, with participants taking roles and attempting to reach a negotiated settlement within the boundaries established by the simulation scenario. The negotiation situations established by these simulation exercises include the following: multilateral trade (tariff) negotiation; negotiation between an "authority" established by the Convention on the Law of the Sea and a consortium of mining companies; negotiation between a small developing country and two foreign multinational corporations; and a bilateral negotiation between two nations over six issues. (The simulation exercises are described briefly in the appendix.)

The simulation exercises portray realistic examples of international negotiation, which is necessary to retain the attention of professional participants. Realism also makes the exercises useful for theoretical analysis of negotiation processes. The simulation exercises portray concrete situations, and demonstrate the capacity of substantive material to shape negotiation behavior. The exercises also represent institutional factors, which are an important and largely forgotten issue in negotiation theory. In international negotiations it is relatively uncommon for the interaction to be limited to single individuals, and the Vietnam peace negotiations between Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, or the Camp David negotiations involving President Jimmy Carter, President Anwar Sadat, and Prime Minister Menachen Begin are exceptions that prove the rule. Usually institutional factors

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