school activities such as yearbooks is primarily doing this to maintain a level of local status. Similarly, donating local businesspeoples' time to head local charity drives, such as United Way campaigns, is once again an issue of status maintenance. Thus these latter two examples are probably best modeled by Keeping-While-Giving.
Interactions with government, no matter the level, are often characterized by a desire to give to the government as little as possible while receiving as much is compatible with the recipient's status. Obvious examples deal with local taxes, especially property-based taxes, and the level of service provided by the local government entity. Therefore once again due to the motivation for unbalanced exchanges Keeping-While-Giving seems the most appropriate analytical framework.
Within a local community there are many clear examples of reciprocity, both generalized and balanced. In the authors' hometown several of the master craftsmen (e.g., plumber, electrician, and carpenter) meet each morning at a local restaurant to discuss business. They have joined together to get group rates for insurance and often work together on major local residential construction projects. Other people in the construction business (e.g., painters, heating/air conditioning contractors, and local home fuel suppliers) also have reciprocal relationships with these master craftsmen. When one gets a job that also requires the talents of another of these professionals, he or she will use or recommend the use of his or her exchange partner with expertise in that area. Similar types of cooperative enterprises such as retailers' cooperatives and farmer cooperatives, such as land O'Lakes, are much more formalized, but are probably best analyzed using reciprocity. It is unclear whether franchises would best be analyzed this way.
This chapter has used an Irish community to identify types of exchanges that might best be modeled by reciprocity and those exchanges that might best be modeled by Keeping-While-Giving. Keeping-While-Giving is a new theory that offers interesting applications to areas of marketing such as distribution channels. We have tried to identify activities that are common in U.S. communities that might fruitfully be modeled either by reciprocity or by Keeping-While-Giving. Further research, probably of a participant observation type, will be needed to decide whether our suggestions are correct.
William L. James
Alice G. James