Marketing Exchange Relationships, Transactions, and Their Media

By Franklin S. Houston | Go to book overview

school activities such as yearbooks is primarily doing this to maintain a level of local status. Similarly, donating local businesspeoples' time to head local charity drives, such as United Way campaigns, is once again an issue of status maintenance. Thus these latter two examples are probably best modeled by Keeping-While-Giving.


Government-Consumer Interactions

Interactions with government, no matter the level, are often characterized by a desire to give to the government as little as possible while receiving as much is compatible with the recipient's status. Obvious examples deal with local taxes, especially property-based taxes, and the level of service provided by the local government entity. Therefore once again due to the motivation for unbalanced exchanges Keeping-While-Giving seems the most appropriate analytical framework.


Organizational Structure

Within a local community there are many clear examples of reciprocity, both generalized and balanced. In the authors' hometown several of the master craftsmen (e.g., plumber, electrician, and carpenter) meet each morning at a local restaurant to discuss business. They have joined together to get group rates for insurance and often work together on major local residential construction projects. Other people in the construction business (e.g., painters, heating/air conditioning contractors, and local home fuel suppliers) also have reciprocal relationships with these master craftsmen. When one gets a job that also requires the talents of another of these professionals, he or she will use or recommend the use of his or her exchange partner with expertise in that area. Similar types of cooperative enterprises such as retailers' cooperatives and farmer cooperatives, such as land O'Lakes, are much more formalized, but are probably best analyzed using reciprocity. It is unclear whether franchises would best be analyzed this way.


CONCLUDING COMMENTS

This chapter has used an Irish community to identify types of exchanges that might best be modeled by reciprocity and those exchanges that might best be modeled by Keeping-While-Giving. Keeping-While-Giving is a new theory that offers interesting applications to areas of marketing such as distribution channels. We have tried to identify activities that are common in U.S. communities that might fruitfully be modeled either by reciprocity or by Keeping-While-Giving. Further research, probably of a participant observation type, will be needed to decide whether our suggestions are correct.

William L. James

Alice G. James

-43-

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Marketing Exchange Relationships, Transactions, and Their Media
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction ix
  • Note xiii
  • 1: The Marketing Taxonomy 1
  • Notes 10
  • 2: Comments on Extending the Domain of the Marketing Discipline 11
  • Conclusions 27
  • 3: Reciprocity within a Community 35
  • Concluding Comments 43
  • 4: Exchange as a Vital and Fundamental Consumer Behavior Phenomenon 45
  • Conclusion 54
  • Notes 54
  • Notes 57
  • 5: Refinements in the Model of Internal/External Market Exchange 59
  • Note 76
  • 6: Time, Potency, and Exchange: Making the Most of the Time Resource 77
  • Summary 98
  • 7: The Spatial Dimension 99
  • Summary 113
  • AFTERWORD 115
  • 8: The Evaluation Process and Its Impact on Decision Making in Exchange Relationships 117
  • Note 139
  • 9: How Exchange for Resale Differs from Exchange for Consumption 141
  • Conclusion 151
  • 10: Inequitable or Incomplete Social Marketing: The Case of Higher Education 153
  • Concluding Observations 162
  • Supplemental Reading 163
  • 11: Externalities of Exchange: Foundations for Future Study 167
  • Note 186
  • 12: Exchange: Ethical and Legal Foundations 189
  • Conclusion 210
  • Note 210
  • 13: An Examination of Exchange Media from an Historical Perspective 213
  • Note 224
  • 14: Some Ingestible and Other Types of Consumable Currencies 225
  • Conclusion 235
  • Notes 236
  • 15: The Changing Role of Legal Tender: An Historical Perspective 239
  • Conclusion 244
  • Notes 245
  • 16: Means of Payment in Marketing 247
  • Summary 264
  • Notes 265
  • Bibliography 267
  • Index 303
  • About the Contributors 315
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