controversy was mentioned earlier, regarding reliance on short-answer tests in large classes. One professor reported he sometimes resolved such disputes with a few oral questions to determine whether the student has sufficient understanding of the subject to override a poor grade on a multiple choice test.
Disconnectedness between Higher Education and the Outside World: The impermeability of the closed higher education system must be remedied. Boyer's observation cited earlier is worth reiterating: "People are no longer willing to grant colleges and universities the unchallenged right to stand above public judgement."
What is needed is an ombudsman entity of the following form: A three-member conflict-resolution panel to hear complaints from anyone involved in postsecondary education, whether student, faculty, or private citizen. One member would be appointed by the State Supreme Court, one chosen by lot from among faculty who have submitted their names signifying their willingness to serve, possibly on sabbatical from the campus, and one selected in a similar manner from among the general public. To avoid duplication with the courts, the salaried members of the panel would make every effort to hold no hearings nor question any witnesses, but would operate only from written statements submitted by the parties to the dispute.
The very presence of the panel would serve to place all individuals within the profession on notice. One might suggest the appellation, The College Board of Integrity.
But such constructive steps can only be taken after the environment is cleansed of mistrust and low morale.
This nation and the world we live in need well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded people who are both productive and insightful, seeking answers to life's most important questions. Above all, we need educated men and women who not only pursue their own personal interests but are also prepared to fulfill social and moral obligations. It is during the undergraduate experience, perhaps more than at any other time, that these essential qualities of mind and character are refined.
A balance must be achieved between individuality and community in higher education. Colleges and universities must help students become independent and self-reliant human beings, but must also give priority to community involvement. The aim of the undergraduate experience is not only to prepare the young for productive careers but also to enable them to live lives of dignity and purpose, not only to generate new knowledge but to channel that knowledge to humane ends, not merely to study government, but to help shape a citizenry that can promote public good ( Donohue 1990).
Because of their growing interest in the outcome of better education, companies are taking a more active role in colleges by conducting seminars as well as job hunt strategies that can alleviate students' concerns about life after graduation ( Deutsch 1991). In cooperation with museums of all types, these institutions create "partnerships" that will enable both to impart the renewed interest in redefining education.
The Fine empirical studies mentioned earlier in this chapter are being conducted not by education specialists but by social marketers who bring external