Marketing Exchange Relationships, Transactions, and Their Media

By Franklin S. Houston | Go to book overview

AFTERWORD

Anthropologists and economists approach the subject of monies, or currencies, differently. It is difficult to improve on the comments of the anthropologist George Dalton, on the study of Rossel Island money by the economist, W. E. Armstrong , in his essay, "Primitive Money" ( Dalton 1965, 275-276):

All social scientists are either Sherlock or Mycroft Holmes. Anthropologists are Sherlock: they go to the scene, observe minutely, gather their threads of evidence from what they observe, and -- like Sherlock -- sometimes reach Paddington before reaching conclusions. Economic theorists are Mycroft: they do not go to the scene to observe minutely. They have no equivalent to field work because economists are not concerned with social organization or human behavior, but rather with the behavior of prices, income determinants, capital-output ratios, and other impersonal matters relating to the performance of nationally integrated, industrialized, market economies (for which fieldwork is unnecessary). Institutionalized matters, personal roles, and the social implications of economic organization have long since been consigned to the limbo of sociology. Neither the problems of interest nor the methods of analysis are the same in economics and economic anthropology.

Allen R. Maxwell


NOTES

Acknowledgment: My research in Brunei, 1968-1971, was supported by the National Institutes of Health Research Grant 1-TOL-MH-11,231-01 and Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Pre-Doctoral Fellowship No. 2173, and was sponsored in Brunei by the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Brunei. My research in Sarawak, 1985 and 1986, was supported by Fulbright Southeast Asia Regional Research Grants, and in 1988 by the Department of Anthropology, the College of Arts and Sciences, the Graduate School, the Capstone International Program Center, the Office of Academic Affairs, of The University of Alabama, and the Alabama State Museum of Natural History, and was sponsored in Sarawak by the Sarawak Museum. I would like to thank Michael D. Murphy for his comments on an earlier draft of this chapter.

1.
I saw one of these duit basi in a local bazaar in Brunei in the late 1960's. Discussions with a shopkeeper in the capital suggested that the "best" panggal were ones marked with a Sultan's chop. The one I saw lacked such a chop. Earlier panggal, the shopkeeper indicated, were made of wood, and marked with a Sultan's chop.
2.
In 1899 a hoard of gold objects was discovered some 10-15 miles to the southeast of the capital of Brunei, in Limbang, now part of Malaysian Sarawak. Twenty-five objects of the original find were acquired by the Brunei Museum in 1967 ( Harrisson 1969, 57). Tom Harrisson, then advisor to the Brunei Museum, offered the hypothesis that they may have been part of the holdings of late

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Marketing Exchange Relationships, Transactions, and Their Media
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction ix
  • Note xiii
  • 1: The Marketing Taxonomy 1
  • Notes 10
  • 2: Comments on Extending the Domain of the Marketing Discipline 11
  • Conclusions 27
  • 3: Reciprocity within a Community 35
  • Concluding Comments 43
  • 4: Exchange as a Vital and Fundamental Consumer Behavior Phenomenon 45
  • Conclusion 54
  • Notes 54
  • Notes 57
  • 5: Refinements in the Model of Internal/External Market Exchange 59
  • Note 76
  • 6: Time, Potency, and Exchange: Making the Most of the Time Resource 77
  • Summary 98
  • 7: The Spatial Dimension 99
  • Summary 113
  • AFTERWORD 115
  • 8: The Evaluation Process and Its Impact on Decision Making in Exchange Relationships 117
  • Note 139
  • 9: How Exchange for Resale Differs from Exchange for Consumption 141
  • Conclusion 151
  • 10: Inequitable or Incomplete Social Marketing: The Case of Higher Education 153
  • Concluding Observations 162
  • Supplemental Reading 163
  • 11: Externalities of Exchange: Foundations for Future Study 167
  • Note 186
  • 12: Exchange: Ethical and Legal Foundations 189
  • Conclusion 210
  • Note 210
  • 13: An Examination of Exchange Media from an Historical Perspective 213
  • Note 224
  • 14: Some Ingestible and Other Types of Consumable Currencies 225
  • Conclusion 235
  • Notes 236
  • 15: The Changing Role of Legal Tender: An Historical Perspective 239
  • Conclusion 244
  • Notes 245
  • 16: Means of Payment in Marketing 247
  • Summary 264
  • Notes 265
  • Bibliography 267
  • Index 303
  • About the Contributors 315
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