The Cold War in Retrospect: The Formative Years

By Roger S. Whitcomb | Go to book overview

policies throughout the post- 1945 period was misinterpreted by Washington. America's image of the Russian state in the years after 1945 being restrained from occupying every piece of real estate not actually under the domination of the Red Army, solely out of fear of military resistance, is an oversimplification of the complex motives that actually guided the policies of a regime which by both ideology and historical experience was always acutely sensitive to the political and psychosocial conditions of geopolitical life and of national survival.


NOTES
1.
Not so destabilizing according to John Lewis Gaddis, The Long Peace: Inquiries into the History of the Cold War ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1987). See also his article, "Hanging Tough Paid Off," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists ( January/February 1989): 21-45. For an excellent study that effectively challenges the "long peace" thesis, see Michael Brecher and Jonathan Wilkenfeld, Crisis, Conflict and Instability ( Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1989).
2.
Witness the recent outpouring of monographs, articles, and books on the subject, reflecting new information stemming from the opening up of the Russian and East European archives, and the spate of commentaries regarding these new findings. Some have concluded that these newly-available sources refute the revisionist attempt to downplay ideology as the primary wellspring of Soviet Russia's conduct of the Cold War. See, for example, Douglas J. MacDonald, "Communist Bloc Expansion in the Early Cold War: Challenging Realism, Refuting Revisionism," International Security (Winter 1995- 1996): 152-188; John Lewis Gaddis, "The Tragedy of Cold War History," Foreign Affairs ( January/February 1994): 142-154; and Steven Merrit Miner , "Revelations, Secrets, Gossip and Lies," New York Times Book Review, May 14, 1995: 19-21.

A useful summary of early opinions is Norman A. Graebner, "Cold War Origins and the Continuing Debate: A Review of the Literature," Journal of Conflict Resolution ( March 1969): 123-132. An excellent more recent summary of the full range of viewpoints at various times in the post-1945 era may be found in Michael H. Hunt , "The Long Crisis in U.S. Diplomatic History," Diplomacy (Winter 1992): 41-58.

3.
Ernest R. May, ed., American Cold War Strategy: Interpreting NSC 68 ( Boston: St. Martin's Press, 1993), p. 90.
4.
Russian archival materials and memoirs, for example, underscore the brutality of Joseph Stalin but nonetheless also suggest that he was opportunistic and pragmatic in his foreign policy, seeking to further Russian power but keenly attuned to constraints and risks.
5.
See, for example, Gabriel Kolko, The Politics of War: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1943-1945 ( New York. Random House, 1968), who argued that America's support for reactionaries and conservatives in Eastern Europe constituted a deliberate attempt to frustrate Soviet Russia's legitimate security goals.
6.
For a still useful commentary on fallacies contained in models of Soviet behavior see Harvey Fireside, "Analyzing Soviet Affairs: Methods and Myths," Problems of Communism ( May-June 1972): 77-79.
7.
A cybernetic or organismic explanation of a state's foreign policies

-4-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Cold War in Retrospect: The Formative Years
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Preface xi
  • Introduction: America Meets Russia, 1941-1961 1
  • Notes 4
  • 1 - The Troubled Partnership: The Bear and Eagle in World War II 7
  • Notes 48
  • 2 - The Postwar Scene (1945-1953): Cold War Triumphant 65
  • Notes 123
  • 3 - The Eisenhower Years: Nothing Fundamental Has Changed 143
  • Notes 184
  • 4 - Babylon Revisited 199
  • Notes 222
  • Selected Bibliography 227
  • Index 253
  • About the Author 261
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 266

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.