Journalism training perpetuates or modifies professional journalistic practices and molds the perceptions journalists have of the role and function of the media. Because journalism training influences the selection and processing of news, it also has an indirect effect on the way in which we view the world around us. In times of crisis, as events in Eastern and Central Europe and elsewhere have shown, those who process the news play a key role in informing mass audiences and shaping public opinion. But it has also become obvious that not all newsmakers are alike. They do not all share the same objectives, procedures or role perceptions. This work seeks to explain some of these differences by analyzing journalism training needs and structures in the various regions of the world. It is to be noted that the use of the term "newsmakers" when referring to journalists is deliberate. It has become fashionable to use this term to describe sources or persons who are "in the news." But, as I have argued elsewhere, 1 journalists effectively "make the news" when they gather, select and process information.
Obviously, journalism training structures and the different models of journalism that support them are strongly influenced by the political, cultural and social contexts in which they exist. In the United States, for example, journalists are viewed as "watchdogs," keeping a close eye on the workings of government and democratic processes. In some West European countries, journalists function as reporters but also as interpret-