either for those whose skills may have deteriorated over time or for those who are being called upon to work with new equipment or procedures. The fifth level seeks to build a liberal background so that communicators can develop an ability to process a variety of information and understand social, cultural and economic issues affecting their audience. The final level extends to specialized applications in the various fields of mass communication.
The quantitative side of needs assessment is affected by a variety of social and professional factors. The numbers and types of communicators needed by the media industry of a society will depend on the structure of that industry. For example, is the media system dominated by the print media, or is broadcasting an important avenue of communication? In most industrialized nations, there is a fairly balanced mix of media, controlled to a certain extent by the degree of advertising allowed in the broadcast media. In other countries, there may be technical difficulties associated with the availability of newsprint or printing presses, or social problems such as illiteracy, which are bound to alter prevailing media structures. In some countries, geographic considerations may make it difficult to distribute newspapers or transmit broadcast messages effectively. In a few societies, media consumption patterns may be shaped by strong cultural or religious traditions.
In summary, then, the training needs of different societies will be affected by any number of factors associated with their political and social systems, their economies and their media systems, as well as the traditions and perceived roles of the communicators that work in them. It is obvious that such training needs will vary considerably and that very different training structures will be needed to meet them successfully.