Public Relations Inquiry as Rhetorical Criticism: Case Studies of Corporate Discourse and Social Influence

By William N. Elwood | Go to book overview

current reality, and such tax issues promise to remain controversial for years to come.


NOTES
1.
In Ohio, property tax levies are initiated by boards of education and voted upon by the electors in the school district. Under Ohio law, there are two types of tax levies available that provide additional operating revenue to meet current expenses: current operating levies and emergency levies ( Whitman and Pittner, 1987). The 1991 Cincinnati Public Schools levy was a current operating levy.
2.
The American Dictionary of Campaigns and Elections ( Young, 1987) describes ballot propositions as, "Issues that are placed on the ballot to be voted on at the same time that a scheduled primary or general election is held. Ballot propositions are usually in the form of a question upon which voters are able to vote yes or no. Ballot propositions are widely used in the United States. In a typical general election, about 4 out of 5 states will decide statewide ballot issues."
3.
Johnson ( 1990) divided 600 recent books and articles among the following five categories: (1) general study of political communication, (2) approaches to analyzing political communication, (3) forms of strategies, (4) the role of the media, and (5) women and politics.
4.
Hall ( 1983) noted that a vast majority of literature on persuasive political campaigns has focused on one of three areas: (1) the explanation of campaign results with a principal focus on candidates, thus making it candidate-issue oriented, (2) impacts of media on election results, or (3) the examination of sociological, psychological, and political correlates of human behavior.
5.
In those early days, the levy campaigns were organized and run by the Cincinnati Business Committee (CBC) ( Chuck Schultze, personal interview, March 2, 1992). This committee included business people from several companies in Cincinnati. Ohio law prohibits a board of education from using school funds to "support or oppose the passage of a school levy or bond issue or to compensate any school district employee for time spent on any activity intended to influence the outcome of a school levy or bond issue election" ( Ohio Revised Code, section 3517.01).
6.
Although it was given the most attention, the television commercial was not the only broadcast message in the campaign. The Cincinnati Federation of Teachers funded a radio spot, with the goal of reaching weekday commuters. The radio commercial carried the same audio message.
7.
The use of endorsements to win an election is a strategy suggested in most school finance campaign resources ( Goldstein, 1984; Banach, 1986; Nusbaum, 1987; Kromer, 1988; and Funk, 1990). Nusbaum noted, "The creation of a winning attitude through the association of positive people in the campaign is of utmost importance" ( 1987, p. 8).

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