Against the Tide: Women Reformers in American Society

By Paul A. Cimbala; Randall M. Miller | Go to book overview

moved to Washington, D. C., where from 1872 to 1884 she served as principal of a black school.

Cary continued to express her views in the press and on the lecture circuit. While she no longer advocated emigration, she held to her views about black advancement, black equality, and woman's suffrage while also addressing the need for black women to become more involved in the public life of their communities. She continued to maintain a full lecture schedule until her health prevented such activity, but while doing so, Cary remembered the youthful criticism she had leveled at black conventioneers in 1849 to "do more, and talk less." She testified before the House Judiciary Committee in favor of expanding the scope of the Reconstruction amendments to include women. In March 1874 she joined a group of women that unsuccessfully attempted to register to vote. In 1880 she founded the Colored Women's Progressive Franchise Program, an organization that was true to the black abolitionist legacy; while the organization diverged from her earlier integrationist views (as did her position at a black school, which perhaps suggests her recognition of the unhappy facts of American life and the need for black organizations to make headway in a racist society), it did present a multi-faceted program for black advancement. And in 1883 she received a law degree from Howard University. Rheumatism and cancer finally stopped Mary Ann Shadd Cary from "doing." She died in Washington, D. C., on 5 June 1893, having lived long enough to see the hopes and expectations of black abolitionism stymied for the time being by white America's abandonment of its black citizens. After a lifetime of activism, there was still much left to do.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary placed great demands on black Americans. Her expectations were high and her criticism of those who failed to accept her challenge was unforgiving. While recognizing the inequities of the society in which they lived, she prodded blacks on to take control of their destiny and to claim what was rightfully theirs. She had, however, never asked anyone to do what she was not willing to do herself.

North Star, 23 March, 1849, reel 5, George E. Carter and C. Peter Ripley, eds., Black Abolitionist Papers, 1830-1865 (17 reels, New York, 1981; Ann Arbor, Mich., 1984) (hereinafter referred to as Black Abolitionist Papers). The Black Abolitionist Papers Project collected almost 14,000 documents produced by approximately 300 African- American men and women. A selection of these documents has been annotated and published in C. Peter Ripley et al., eds., The Black Abolitionist Papers ( 5 vols., Chapel Hill, N.C., 1985- 1992). An even more select group of documents from the letterpress edition appears in C. Peter Ripley et al., eds., Witness for Freedom: African American Voices on Race, Slavery, and Emancipation (Chapel Hill, 1993). The Black Abolitionist Papers in its various forms are critical for understanding the movement. Peter Ripley's introductions to the various published volumes were essential in shaping my views of black abolitionism, as was the time I spent working with him on the Canadian volume,


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Against the Tide: Women Reformers in American Society
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Introduction ix
  • Catharine Beecher and Domestic Relations 1
  • Notes 16
  • Bibliography 17
  • Mary Ann Shadd Cary and Black Abolitionism 19
  • Notes 38
  • Bibliography 40
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Woman's Rights Movement 41
  • Notes 51
  • Bibliography 53
  • Dorothea Dix and Mental Health Reform 55
  • Notes 69
  • Bibliography 71
  • Frances Willard and Temperance 73
  • Notes 82
  • Bibliography 83
  • Jane Addams and the Settlement House Movement 85
  • Notes 97
  • Bibliography 98
  • Ida Wells-Barnett and the African-American Anti-Lynching Campaign 99
  • Notes 110
  • Bibliography 111
  • Jessie Daniel Ames and the White Women's Anti- Lynching Campaign 113
  • Notes 123
  • Bibliography 123
  • Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement 125
  • Notes 136
  • Bibliography 137
  • Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker Movement 139
  • Notes 151
  • Bibliography 152
  • Betty Friedan and the National Organization for Women 153
  • Notes 164
  • Bibliography 165
  • Index 167
  • About the Editors and Contributors 171


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 172

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.