MEMORIAL: HISTORY AS MORAL IMPERATIVE
In this section, we will traverse the seventy-year cycle from the birth and triumph of the Bolshevik Party under Lenin to its exposure to glasnost and disintegration under Gorbachev. In between there was the reign of Stalin, and throughout there was the phenomenon that came to be called Stalinism. "Terror" and "repression" were the shaping instruments of this period. Part I will explore their form and scope, the efforts from above to oppose them (official "de-Stalinization"), and one of the major efforts at de-Stalinization from below-- Memorial's retrospective on Soviet history. As the rulers realized all too well, historical scholarship is always political. The hegemonic issues are what will be selected for remembrance and how it will be interpreted. While Memorial was exposing the past, it was also discrediting the present. Indeed, it was partly through publicizing the perfidy of that past that the ruling clique was unseated.