THE EMERGENCE AND EVOLUTION OF MEMORIAL
It is difficult to define the contours of Memorial, because of its unofficial origins and its multifaceted activities. What we find when we examine the history of Memorial is the development of the organization along various lines: as a historical-enlightenment society, as a human rights movement, as a social organization and as a political organization. It was the interaction and combination of all these forces that shaped the form and function of Memorial. A chronological examination of Memorial's history, with these themes in mind, may be the clearest way to understand how Memorial developed.
For purposes of discussion, it is useful to divide Memorial's course of development into three phases, which are described in the next three chapters. The first stage, 1987-1988, encompasses the signature campaign, the 70th anniversary of the revolution, the 19th Party Conference and the "Week of Conscience." The second period, 1988-1989, includes Memorial's struggle against official hindrance and the Founding Conference. This event, which established a charter, resolutions and basic moral principles, will be given special attention here because it is essential to understanding the philosopy of Memorial. In the third phase, the aftermath of the Founding Conference, 1989- 1990, the movement spread as local divisions emerged in cities all over the Soviet Union, a monument to the victims of totalitarianism was erected in Moscow, and Memorial became more involved in political issues.