altered. The reader will see this process reflected in several chapters in the present volume (cf. chapters by Biglan, Lewin and Hops, and Gottman).
In most of the reports, the emphasis is upon collecting data based on several different levels of assessment, varying from self-report to the more molecular observation coding schemes. Data are still collected in the traditional interview and questionnaire and represent an important component in the data base for almost every chapter in this volume. These continue to be an important source of molar variables reflecting family member perceptions about their own behavior as well as that of others in the family. The present volume makes a strong case for the use of observation data in describing sequences of family interaction. It becomes a key component in four of the chapters (cf. Radke Yarrow, Gottman, Hops, and Patterson and Forgatch). The settings in which the molecular data are collected vary: videotaped family problem solving sequences ( Forgatch, 1987), the home ( Patterson, 1982), and the laboratory ( Reiss, 1981; Sigel, 1982). The chapter by Radke Yarrow is unique in this respect. She has innovated a design for a whole new setting. Families are brought into a specially designed apartment laboratory setting where data can be collected with multiple agents and methods for an entire day.
Sigel's chapter catches the essence of what the volume is about. One gets a sense from his perspective that the volume represents some kind of a new beginning. Several authors struggle to present integrative models that synthesize the relation between sets of hypotheses. Others (e.g., Griffin) outline time series and sequential analytic statistics to these problems as techniques for shoring up the empirical foundation itself. In this welter of activity, several shapes emerge to viewers like Sigel and myself. It seems to us that the volume may serve as a first step in building process models of family life. What are the forces that contribute to stability and change in emotional exchanges among family members? What mechanisms seem to amplify and dampen these processes? The process metaphor should prove to be extremely useful in guiding the next round of studies. We faithfully followed Bacon's injunction, but the best we can do is hand the king no answers and, instead, metamorphize his prior questions.
Bacon F. ( 1620). "Aphorisms concerning the interpretation of nature and the kingdom of man". From the Novum organum as cited by D. J. Y. Bronstein H. Kroinkorian, & P. P. Winer ( 1947), Basic problems of philosophy. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Bentler P. M. ( 1980). "Multivariate analysis with latent variables: Causal modeling". Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 419-455.
Blechman E. A. ( 1980). "Family problem-solving training". American Journal of Family Therapy, 8, 3-22.
Forgatch M. S. ( 1987). Longitudinal study of depressed mood in recently separated mothers. Unpublished manuscript.