Depression and Aggression in Family Interaction

By Gerald R. Patterson | Go to book overview

approximately 40% of the variance was accounted for. When maternal self- report was used for all indicators (i.e., criterion as well as predictor constructs), there was a strong fit of the model to the data and substantial criterion variance (approximately 40%) was again accounted for. This result was consistent with expectations.

Taken together, this series of analyses was interpreted as illustrating several major points: first, in terms of external validity--and we mean across dependent measures as well as across populations--constructs defined by multiagent and multimethod indicators are far more likely to continue to demonstrate predictive validity than constructs defined by single methods and agents; and second, at least with self-report data, monomethod operational definitions can provide models with good internal validity. This second point carries greater import than may be initially obvious. For example, although a mother's self-report may be distorted (see Dawes, 1985), her "life portrait" is likely to be a coherent one. A mother's view of her child's behavior is bound to influence the child, regardless of whether or not others share her view. In the clinical arena, the mother's perspective may indeed be what needs to be addressed. Her view may be of overriding importance for the family.

There is much work yet to be accomplished in this area, but for the first time since Campbell and Fiske introduced the multitrait-multimethod matrix, there appears to be a growing number of technical tools to help in understanding the impact of method variance on our work as social scientists.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Support for this project was provided by Grant No. HD 22679, NICHD Center for Research for Mothers and Children; Grant No. MH 38318, NIMH Mood, Anxiety and Personality Disorders Research Branch; and Grant No. MH 37940, NIMH Center for Studies of Antisocial and Violent Behavior.

The writers gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments by P. M. Bentler, R. Dawes, M. Stoolmiller, and J. Tanakaon previous drafts of this manuscript.


REFERENCES

Bentler P. M. ( 1980). Multivariate analysis with latent variables: Causal modeling. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 419-455.

Cairns R. B., & Green J. A. ( 1979). How to assess personality and social patterns: Observations or ratings? In R. B. Cairns (Ed.), The analysis of social interactions: Methods, issue, and illustrations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Campbell D. T., & Fiske D. W. ( 1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait- multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.

Carnap R. ( 1956). The methodological character of theoretical concepts. In H. Feigl & M. Scriven

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Depression and Aggression in Family Interaction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • References xiv
  • 1: The Family Research Consortium: At the Crest of a Major Wave? 1
  • 2: Developmental Epidemiological Framework for Family Research on Depression and Aggression 11
  • References 46
  • 3: Methodological Issues in the Study of Family Violence 49
  • Conclusion 70
  • Acknowledgments 71
  • References 72
  • 4: How Marriages Change 75
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 99
  • References 100
  • 5: A Contextual Approach to the Problem of Aversive Practices in Families 103
  • Conclusion 123
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 124
  • References 124
  • 6: Statistical Methods for Analyzing Family Interaction 131
  • Summary 165
  • Acknowledgments 165
  • References 166
  • 7: Family Environments of Depressed and Well Parents and Their Children: Issues of Research Methods 169
  • Conclusion 182
  • Acknowledgments 183
  • References 183
  • 8 - Maternal Depression, Marital Discord, and Children's Behavior: A Developmental Perspective 185
  • Acknowledgments 204
  • References 204
  • 9: Initiation and Maintenance of Process Disrupting Single- Mother Families 209
  • Acknowledgments 242
  • References 243
  • 10: Method Variance in Structural Equation Modeling: Living with "Glop" 247
  • References 276
  • 11: Reflections: A Conceptual Analysis and Synthesis 281
  • References 312
  • Author Index 315
  • Subject Index 325
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