ratings of the SDS ( Pallas et al., 1983). This problem can be dealt with in group treatments by the gentle use of limits, but when test takers work on their own, there are usually no influential monitors.
As we indicated earlier, professionals are also reluctant to read or study manuals. It is true that these documents are not exciting reading, but they are the most economical way to communicate extensive information to a large audience. Workshops are a poor substitute; workshop experience often confirms how little reading has taken place. We have often been confronted with participants who range from nonreaders to skilled and well-informed professionals who could lead the same workshop. Such experience makes clear the wide gap that exists between what a publisher prints and what the average practitioner comprehends and applies in daily work. A creative solution is needed. It appears likely that the new test standards will only contribute to the reading difficulty level of revised manuals.
We are indebted to Gary D. Gottfredson, Linda S. Gottfredson, and John J. Horan for their critical review of an earlier draft of this chapter.
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