tures concentrated on the contrast between urban and rural communities, whereas several of the "long ago" pictures depicted historical figures such as Shaka and Sundiata. Follow-up discussions allowed children to explain why they had included particular things in their pictures or left others out. There were still misunderstandings. One child drew a now picture of a young man from Chad who had visited the class. In the drawing, the young man and his sister ride an elephant to the student's school. As he shared his picture, the child explained: "I hope he comes visit our school again, but next time I want him to bring his sister and ride an elephant."
Sketch-to-stretch pictures allow teachers to see where students' misconceptions persist.
As you may have noticed by now, constructive evaluation shifts the focus from a remediation model for teaching and learning to the construction of a community of inquiry, in which students rehearse, refine and revise, and communicate in a distinctive "voice" or style while solving substantive intellectual problems. Such an approach is closer to the way in which adults operate when they are working and is certainly more congruent with the ways in which teachers and students work throughout this book.
Johnston ( 1987), Newmann et al. ( 1995)
We have emphasized that the best assessment exercises have an authentic audience, and much of the work students have done in these classrooms clearly is directed at audiences beyond the teacher. We should also point out that some of the most meaningful assessment occurs when students are writing and creating art for themselves. The benefit of many of the techniques discussed throughout this book is that they give students a chance to demonstrate to themselves what they have learned. During a lesson or a unit, students may have picked up a great deal of information, but it often remains in a somewhat vague or disorganized form. Constructive evaluation provides a chance for students to reflect on their learning in order to identify organizing themes, patterns, and structures--it becomes a way for them to say, "Hey, I know what's going on here, and here's how I know it."
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