Elitism, Populism, and European Politics

By Jack E. S. Hayward | Go to book overview

potential members want. It also depends upon the general market 'image' of the organization. Just as large firms need to produce the right product, they also make great efforts to create a favourable 'image' for themselves (oil companies being a classic example). Party leaders are not stupid. We might expect them to develop organizational responses to market challenge. This might mean a further extension of state funding or even compulsory voting. In the short term it is likely to mean the adoption of new marketing techniques bringing parties, interest groups, and social movements closer together in terms of organizational design. We may conclude by suggesting that the intensity of group activity is such that, in many societies, there is little chance of élites losing touch with their peoples. Modern politics is about organization. Modern citizens have demonstrated that they know how to organize.


NOTES
1.
Stein Rokkan, Citizens, Elections, Parties ( Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1970).
2.
Russell Dalton, Citizen Politics in Western Democracies ( Chatham, NJ: Chatham House, 1988), 41.
3.
Max Kaase and Alan Marsh, "'Political Action Repertory: Changes over Time and a New Typology'", in Samuel H. Barnes and M. Kaase (eds.), Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies ( Beverly Hills, Calif: Sage), 137.
4.
Ibid. 149; cf. Gabriel A. Almond and Sidney Verba, The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1963).
5.
M. Lal Goel and David Horton Smith, "'Political Activities'", in David Horton Smith , Jacqueline Macaulay, and Associates (eds.), Participation in Social and Political Activities ( San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1980), 76.
6.
Johan P. Olsen, Organised Democracy: Political Institutions in a Welfare State: The Case of Norway ( Oslo: Univertitetsforlaget, 1983).
7.
Jack L. Walker, "'The Origins and Maintenance of Interest Groups in America'", American Political Science Review, 77 ( 1983), 403.
8.
Kent Weaver and Bert A. Rockman, Do Institutions Matter? Government Capabilities in the US and Abroad ( Washington: Brookings Institution, 1993).
9.
Olsen, Organised Democracy, 7.
10.
Stein Rokkan, "'Numerical Democracy and Corporate Pluralism'" in Robert A. Dahl , Political Opposition in Western Democracies ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966), 107.
11.
Martin Heisler and Robert Kvavik, "'Patterns of European Politics: The European Polity Model'", in M. Heisler (ed.), Politics in Europe: Structures and Processes in Some Post-industrial Societies

-186-

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Elitism, Populism, and European Politics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Tables ix
  • LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS x
  • Introduction Mediocre Élites Elected by Mediocre Peoples 1
  • Note 9
  • 1: The Populist Challenge to Élitist Democracy in Europe 10
  • Notes 30
  • 2 - 'Losing Touch' in a Democracy: Demands Versus Needs 33
  • Notes 60
  • 3: Freedom from the Press 67
  • Notes 86
  • 4: From Representative to Responsive Government? 88
  • Notes 99
  • 5: The European Union, the Political Class, and the People 101
  • Notes 120
  • 6: Political Parties and the Public Accountability of Leaders 121
  • Notes 141
  • 7: Élite-Mass Linkages in Europe: Legitimacy Crisis or Party Crisis? 143
  • Notes 160
  • 8: Organized Interests as Intermediaries 164
  • Notes 186
  • 9: Mediating between the Powerless and the Powerful 190
  • Notes 202
  • 10: Public Demands and Economic Constraints: All Italians Now? 203
  • Notes 219
  • 11: The Fluctuating Rationale of Monetary Union 220
  • 4: Conclusion 235
  • Notes 237
  • 12: Has Government by Committee Lost the Public's Confidence? 238
  • Notes 249
  • Conclusion Has European Unification by Stealth a Future? 252
  • Notes 257
  • Index 259
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