European Industrial Policy: The Twentieth-Century Experience

By James Foreman-Peck; Giovanni Federico | Go to book overview

allocation by controlling competitive processes and promoting new industries, with increased protection from foreign competition. From 1970 to 1973 this framework was subject to reforms, interrupted in 1974. In the second half of the 1970s, policy focus shifted towards state ownership of firms, as well as to new constraints on competition, in this case to protect public firms. From 1986, through privatization, the state has been undoing the work of the previous decade. At the same time it has been implementing some policies with a renewed emphasis on infrastructures, education, and R & D, as well as on the traditional approach of trying to influence market mobility, this time through incentive systems. Many of these changes were not policy developments built on accumulated experience. They resulted from wider political change: the end of the First Republic in 1926, the fall of Estado Novo in 1974 and membership of the European Community in 1986. That is, at given moments, discontinuities in industrial policy were not necessarily related to their past effectiveness or to the distortions imposed.

It is also clear that the Portuguese state often promoted ambitious policies. They were obviously demanding with regard to the analytical capabilities of the civil servants and they probably required knowledge about technology, demand conditions, and firm behaviour that was not available to the regulatory or supervising agencies. On the other hand, for most of the time from 1926 to the early 1980s they implied, not always for the same reasons, a deep distrust of free markets as means to achieve efficient or fair allocations of resources. Successive governments have (implicitly) assumed that the costs of regulation would be negligible.

Finally, the problems of policy coordination among different agencies and ministries should be stressed. The previous discussion focused on external trade policies, but it is not difficult to find other examples (for instance, several agencies belonging to five different ministries are involved, without much success, in forestry management). In the case of tariff protection membership of the European Community solved the domestic conflicts. The same happened in other areas where Community or Union policies apply. However, that will not solve the domestic problem of trying to define concepts of public interest, for regions and communities, that must be part of domestic and Union policy-making.


REFERENCES

ALEGRIA M. ( 1990). 'A organização dos transportes em Portugal (1850-1910): As vias e o tráfego'. Memórias do Centro de Estudos Geográficos, 12.

AMARAL L. ( 1991). Lndústria e Energia: As Apostas Portuguesas. Lisboa: IAPMEI.

ANDRADE A. ( 1902). Portugal Economico. Lisboa: Manuel Gomes Editor.

ANTÓNIO A., MOTA A., and CARVALHO A. ( 1983). O Sector Empresarial do Estado em Portugal e nos Países da C.E.E. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda/CEEPS.

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European Industrial Policy: The Twentieth-Century Experience
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • List of Tables xiii
  • List of Figures xvi
  • 1: Industrial Policies in Europe: Introduction 1
  • References 15
  • 2: Britain: From Economic Liberalism to Socialism--And Back? 18
  • References 53
  • 3: France: The Idiosyncrasies of Volontarisme 58
  • References 94
  • 4: Germany: The Invention of Interventionism 98
  • References 118
  • 5: Italy: Stalling and Surpassing 124
  • References 146
  • 6: Sweden: The Rise and Fall of the Swedish Model 152
  • References 174
  • 7: The Netherlands: The History of an Empty Box? 177
  • References 192
  • 8: Belgium: Liberalism by Default 194
  • 9: Ireland: From Inward to Outward Policies 215
  • References 231
  • 10: Spain: Industrial Policy under Authoritarian Politics 233
  • References 263
  • 11: Portugal: Industrialization and Backwardness 268
  • References 292
  • 12: Greece: From Rent-Seeking Protectionism to Direct Intervention 295
  • References 316
  • 13: Russia: A Comparative Economic Systems Interpretation 319
  • Appendix 372
  • References 387
  • 14: A Cultural Theory of Industrial Policy 398
  • References 424
  • 15: European Industrial Policy: An Overview 426
  • References 458
  • Index 461
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